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Persuasive essays 4th grade

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a speech by An example of speech is a conversation between two people. An example of speech is the presidential address. the act of speaking; expression or communication of thoughts and feelings by essays 4th grade spoken words the power or ability to georgia tech essay, speak the manner of speaking: her lisping speech that which is spoken; utterance, remark, statement, talk, conversation, etc. a talk or address given to an audience the language used by a certain group of people; dialect or tongue the persuasive, study of the theory and practice of cover oral expression and communication Archaic rumor; report. Origin of speech. Middle English speche from Old English sp?c, spr?c from base of sprecan, to speak: see speak. Origin of speech. acyrology 1. an incorrectness in diction. 2. cacology. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade! #8212;acyrological, adj. alogia Medicine. an inability to speak, especially as the result of a brain lesion. aphasia Pathology. an impairment or loss of the faculty of understanding or using spoken or written language. #8212; aphasiac, n. #8212;aphasic, n., adj. aphonia loss of the power of speech; dumbness. #8212; aphonic, #8212;apho-nous, adj. aphrasia loss or absence of the power of speech. biloquism the ability to speak in two distinct voices. #8212;biloquist, n. cacology 1. a defectively produced speech. 2. socially unacceptable enunciation.

3. nonconformist pronunciation. deafmutism the condition of chapter research paper example lacking both hearing and speech. Also called surdomutism. #8212;deafmute, n. dyslogia Pathology. an persuasive essays inability to express ideas or reasoning in speech because of a mental disorder. dysphasia an impaired state of the power of speech or of the ability to comprehend language, caused by injury to the brain. dysphemia any neurotic disorder of speech; stammering. dysphonia speech problems resulting from damage to essays buy, or malformation of the speech organs. echolalia the uncontrollable and persuasive essays immediate repetition of sounds and words heard from others. #8212; echolalic, adj. elocution 1. the questions, art of public speaking. 2. the manner or quality of persuasive a person#8217;s speech. #8212;elocutionist, n. galimatias confused or unintelligible speech; gibberish. glossograph an instrument for recording the movements of the tongue during speech. glossolalia an ecstatic, usually unintelligible speech uttered in the worship services of any of several sects stressing emotionality and religious fervor. Essay! Also called speaking in tongues. #8212;glossolalist, n. glossophobia an abnormal fear of speaking in public or of trying to speak. gutturalism a throaty manner of speaking. hyperphasia a condition in which control of the speech organs is lost, resulting in meaningless and deranged speech. labialism a tendency to articulate sounds with the lips rounded. Persuasive 4th Grade! lalomania an abnormal love of speech or talking. lalopathology the is your approach essay, branch of medical science that studies disorders of speech. Persuasive! #8212;lalopathy, n. #8212;lalopathic, adj. lalophobia an abnormal fear of speaking. logopedia, logopaedia Pathology. the science that studies speech defects and their treatment. Also logopedics, logopaedics. #8212;logopedie, logopaedic, adj. mogilalia a pathological speech problem, as stammering. mutism Psychiatry. Essays Buy! a conscious or unconscious refusal to make verbal responses to questions, present in some mental disorders. neolalia any speech that contains new words unintelligible to a hearer. See also psychology. obmutescence Obsolete, loss of speech or the act of keeping silence. paralalia a speech defect or disorder in which sounds are distorted. paralogia a disorder of the faculty of reasoning, characterized by discon-nected and essays 4th grade meaningless speech. Second Grade Essays! paraphasia aphasia characterized by the inability to find the correct words to express meaning. 4th Grade! paraphrasia garbled or incoherent speech, the result of aphasia. pectoriloquy speaking from the chest, a phenomenon observed with a stethoscope and caused by the voice reverberating in the lung cavities as a result of disease. #8212;pectoriloquial, pectoriloquous, adj. psellism the condition of stuttering or stammering. psittacism a mechanical, repetitive, and usually meaningless speech. surdomutism deafmutism. #8212;surdomute, n. susurration 1. the act or process of whispering.

2. a whispering sound or soft rustling. Also susurrus. #8212;susurrant, susurrous, adj. tachyphrasia an abnormality of speech characterized by extreme volubility. tautophony repetition of the same sound. #8212;tautophonic, tautophonical, adj. traulism a stammering and stuttering speech. ventrilocution ventriloquism. Approach To Life Essay! ventriloquism the art or practice of speaking so that the voice seems not to come from the essays 4th grade, speaker but from another source, as from a mechanical doll. Also called ventriloquy, ventrilocution, gastriloquism. #8212;ventriloquist, n. #8212;ven-triloquistic, adj. verbigeration meaningless repetition of words and what to life phrases. ( countable and persuasive uncountable , plural speeches) (uncountable) The faculty of essays buy uttering articulate sounds or words; the ability to speak or to use vocalizations to communicate. It was hard to hear the sounds of his speech over the noise.He had a bad speech impediment. (countable) A session of speaking; a long oral message given publicly usually by one person. The candidate made some ambitious promises in his campaign speech. A style of speaking. Her speech was soft and lilting. A dialect or language. Talk; mention; rumour.

From Middle English speche , from Old English spC?A‹ , sprC?A‹ (“speech, discourse, language?), from Proto-Germanic *sprA“kijA? , *sprA“kA? (“speech, language?), from Proto-Indo-European *spereg- , *spreg- (“to make a sound?). Persuasive! Cognate with Dutch spraak (“speech?), German Sprache (“language, speech?). More at second essays, speak. The communication of thoughts and feelings by spoken words. When I had made speech my own, I could not wait to go home. Burke's speech was more instructive than any other book on a political subject that I had ever read. That speech was full of dignity and persuasive essays 4th grade greatness as Napoleon understood it. But the chief peculiarity of his speech was its directness and appositeness. But Pierre continued his speech without heeding her. How would you define speech?

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Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Persuasive Essays. Nweeia, Harvard School of studies extended essays, Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of persuasive essays, Wisconsin, P.O. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of second essays, Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for 4th grade more papers by this author. Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by chapter 4 of research paper this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for persuasive essays 4th grade more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and paper Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for essays 4th grade more papers by this author.

Department of essay, Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by persuasive essays 4th grade this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for approach to life more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by persuasive essays 4th grade this author. National Institute of essays buy, Standards and Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for more papers by this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for persuasive essays 4th grade more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of paper cover, Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by persuasive 4th grade this author. Department of georgia tech essay, Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.

Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Office of persuasive essays, Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the essays buy, dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and essays evidence from dissection of tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. The ability of pulpal tissue to react to external stimuli is essays buy, supported by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and persuasive 4th grade gene expression of what essay, pulpal sensory nerve tissue. Final confirmation of sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in persuasive essays heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.

Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. New findings of term cover, sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to essays, the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the what approach to life, tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the essays buy, subject of conjecture and essays theory since the writings of Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). Film Extended. It has been thought to serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Persuasive. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in paper interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and a tool used for breaking the persuasive 4th grade, ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Essays. Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in persuasive essays 4th grade aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980), and to establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and diet gives a more comprehensive view of its functional significance and cover highlights sensory ability as an persuasive essays, added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an studies extended essays, extreme degree of tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and embedded right tusk (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and persuasive essays 4th grade the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of second grade essays, tooth asymmetry in a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for both left and right antemeres, and persuasive essays the left tusk is often slightly longer than the term paper, right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and 4th grade (6) perforation of the tooth through the upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).

Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over essays buy the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of persuasive essays 4th grade, dentinal tubules through the full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the chapter research example, full length of the persuasive essays 4th grade, tooth, diminishing only in diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Chapter Example. Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the full thickness of the dentin and correspond to essays 4th grade, lumina on essays the tusk surface. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to persuasive essays 4th grade, those of humans and other mammals in diameter, though the spacing is three to film studies essays, five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for essays 4th grade most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the full dentinal layer, such as the sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for other marine mammals, including the studies extended essays, rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for essays 4th grade most other mammals. Studies of nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in understanding function (Holland, 1994). Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and chapter 4 of research paper example a majority of persuasive essays, unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).

The A fibers are associated with dentin and the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in essays buy mammalian teeth. Essays. Though there is a lack of genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to 4 of, measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to persuasive essays 4th grade, de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.

Evolutionary patterns of mammalian tooth anatomy and morphology are driven by diet (Anapol and approach to life essay Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). 4th Grade. Thus, comparing the studies extended essays, foraging habits of male and female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Previous dietary studies comparing male and persuasive essays female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in example stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and Gibb, 1982; Laidre and essays Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and stomach contents can be biased since they only term paper, provide information on the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to investigate if dietary differences exist between male and persuasive female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in is your approach animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and persuasive fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on the tissue. What To Life Essay. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on an organism's trophic level, while the persuasive essays 4th grade, carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to predator tissues, and thus can also be used to determine and compare diet among groups of 4 of research paper example, organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to investigate diet in marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in persuasive 4th grade determining the research paper, primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).

Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the most widely accepted mammalian model to explain this sensory ability and function for teeth. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of odontoblastic cells connected to a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of sensory perception to essays buy, the brain (Brännström, 1966). This theory explains the 4th grade, known ability of teeth to sense environmental stimuli, and supports the evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and essays buy Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and Matthews, 2000), and percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and associated nerve bundles are also found in the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and persuasive 4th grade responding to age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on physiologic response of changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to term paper cover, alternating solutions of 4th grade, fresh and second essays salt water, and the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. Persuasive Essays. A complete model of georgia essay, tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the essays, primary objective of this investigation. Georgia Essay Questions. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to an introduced stimulus helps to confirm sensory ability.

Demonstration of persuasive 4th grade, this model includes: (1) an anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the studies extended, erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of essays 4th grade, a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and second vestigial teeth in both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and tissue in the narwhal pulp and 4th grade circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of sensory-associated genes and antigens in georgia tech questions the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of nerve connection at the base of the erupted tusk and continued connection to essays 4th grade, the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain; and research example (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to persuasive, sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from georgia questions, a male narwhal in 2003, 48 km from Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in the eastern portion of essays 4th grade, Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in axial length. What Is Your Essay. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at the base (Fig. 1A). Segments were fixed in 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at the pulpal-dentin interface. Persuasive. The midpoint of second, segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in formalin, and paraffin embedded. Essays 4th Grade. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in grade SEM dentinal tubule analysis and surface imaging of cementum, taken from an erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in persuasive essays 4th grade immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].

The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and essays buy 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and calcified. Essays 4th Grade. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the pulp tissue at the approximate base of the erupted tusk that would be exposed to seawater (Fig. 1B). A fetus was also collected and head dissected into separate maxilla and mandible sections and stored in what is your approach RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and essays kept in paper ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and persuasive essays 4th grade import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.

Examination of channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the full thickness of georgia essay, dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for essays SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. 4 Of Paper. The cleaned sections were then washed and dried in essays a vacuum desiccator and gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Samples for cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). Essays Buy. While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from negative findings. Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for 15 min in citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).

Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to term cover, 1/1000 for incubation and were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at objective magnifications of 4× to persuasive, 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and “nerve” for the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and studies extended essays GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the persuasive, search. Primers were created for all four using the georgia tech questions, Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the persuasive essays, QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Is Your Approach To Life. Another approach to identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to persuasive 4th grade, be involved in grade hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for essays the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of pain, temperature and touch (Kurth, 2010). These genes were cross-referenced to the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to our surprise, based on the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.

The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in studies DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the blow-hole and persuasive 4th grade gingiva from the inner portion of the research paper example, mandible) were placed in persuasive essays RNAlater solution following the respective company protocol within 15 min of access to chapter 4 of, a fetus collected at Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at HC-LITT, where they were stored at persuasive essays, −80C. Sections of these pulp and control samples were obtained from multiple regions and weighed prior to homogenization. The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to homogenize the pulp and control samples. Prior to research paper, Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to persuasive 4th grade, the samples. After processing, 750 μL of TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the samples using the standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and essays buy prior to making cDNA. cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. Essays. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and essays buy housekeeping genes were designed based on the Tursiops truncatus and persuasive 4th grade Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.

The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in term cover sensory nerve functions by using the closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in designing the primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in mRNA levels by persuasive 4th grade QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Reactions were performed in microliter reaction volumes for is your six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for 10 s and 60C for 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Persuasive Essays. Raw data were obtained and term cover analyzed using the SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to persuasive, further calculate the grade, relative expressions between the different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on male ( n  = 91) and female ( n  = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by persuasive Inuit hunters in the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and analyzed at the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.

Burning of fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the essays buy, Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to account for persuasive this depletion by calculating the second essays, atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in persuasive essays 4th grade the analysis) using δ 13 C atm  = −6.429 to 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Essays Buy. Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and essays the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to second essays, obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from essays, female ( n  = 56) and male ( n  = 56) narwhals harvested near the grade, community of essays 4th grade, Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. Lipids were extracted from essay questions, narwhal blubber samples for fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and essays 4th grade converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). FAME were analyzed using the essays buy, Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to test for differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and female narwhals.

Fatty acid values were converted to essays 4th grade, percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). Georgia Tech Essay. A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by a multivariate ANOVA on the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the data) to determine if males and females differed significantly in their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the physiologic response of the persuasive, narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Selection of the stimulus was based on 4 of paper example the potential relevance and importance of salt ions to the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in essays half longitudinally and hinged on studies essays one seam to facilitate immediate closure at persuasive, the other seam.

At each end a 5.7 cm wide by 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to the inner surface of the tube, with an overall diameter of tech questions, 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the essays 4th grade, tusk at the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the jacket to an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and term cover eight-second data averaging was used for essays 4th grade the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the base of the term paper, Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in years 2010, 2011, and 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. 4th Grade. Thus, during the tech essay questions, introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to rise due to physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the persuasive essays 4th grade, introduction of fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the waters of summer inlets where ice is melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from paper cover, land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to persuasive, the shore, and after capture brought to shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. Essays Buy. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Eight-second interval averages were used in 4th grade the final analysis.

Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. Is Your Approach To Life. McCormick red and persuasive essays 4th grade green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of one solution in the tusk jacket and displacement by the alternating solution. Term Cover. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of persuasive 4th grade, food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of heart monitoring, the tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the tech essay questions, tusk, and alternating solutions of high-salt and fresh water were injected into the tusk jacket. Temperature of essays 4th grade, these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by keeping them in what is your approach to life essay Dromedary™ bags submerged in persuasive nearby seawater. Grade. Time periods for the solution injections were varied between animals to account for any effect on essays changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the solution exchange and dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and later segmented into 8-s averaging for the sample of six male narwhals.

The data recording was electronically marked at studies extended, the beginning of 4th grade, each stimulus period to provide an accurate association of recorded heart rate to stimulus. The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in data were experienced due to displacement of the subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and safety is essays, always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and the animal is persuasive 4th grade, released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and tech essay questions most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.

Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of Fisheries and persuasive Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Research protocol was established in the United States under the Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and Trappers Organization (HTO) in Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to essays buy, approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to persuasive, account for the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the georgia tech essay questions, stimulus periods, and persuasive there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and water treatments as the primary fixed factors and split-plots nested within whales and grade essays water treatments, to determine parameter estimates and the significance levels of the fixed factors and factor interactions, fitting the model: µ  +  W i  +  T j  + (WT) ij k  +  ε ijkl  +  γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.

The model also accounted for the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to identify or exclude outliers in the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the essays 4th grade, sizes of the differences among the whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the georgia tech, pathway for sensory conduction in multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and persuasive vestigial teeth (Fig. Film Extended Essays. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from persuasive essays 4th grade, TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. Essays Buy. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.

QT interval = time interval between onset of ventricular depolarization and end of ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.

Organized and open channels were observed in tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. 4). The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to essays 4th grade, surround bundles of grade, Sharpey's fibers, and represents a possible pathway for sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and 4th grade ( E ) unerupted tusk. (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to the right). Studies Extended. Scale bars = 10 microns.

Putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by persuasive essays immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers. CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by chapter paper neurons in dental pulp with important roles in physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the persuasive essays 4th grade, pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. Antibody to essays buy, 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to essays, localize to essays buy, any structures in persuasive essays narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the second, full thickness of narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in this cross-section of persuasive essays, tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in essays a segmented appearance in persuasive the image plane.

The outer surface of the tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the georgia tech essay questions, cementum-dentin boundary at the right margin of this panel. Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Persuasive Essays. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to 15 mm), the substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to chapter 4 of paper example, the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in closest proximity to the odontoblast cell bodies. Persuasive Essays. Consistent staining of small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and precision of the technique. The granule distribution and second grade size is suggestive of essays 4th grade, parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on a string) morphology of substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).

The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to georgia tech essay questions, the CNS. Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and extravasation and persuasive essays 4th grade other responses to inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by neurons and endothelial cells. Substance P released from pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is tech essay questions, implicated in nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to essays 4th grade, pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of chapter 4 of research paper example, putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in persuasive 4th grade peripheral zone of narwhal pulp adjacent to paper, circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is margin of persuasive 4th grade, large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in the layers of odontoblasts, predentin, and tech essay dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.

Sections from film studies extended essays, Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. 6DF). There is persuasive essays 4th grade, evidence of substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to paper, odontoblast cell bodies, and essays 4th grade further evidence of substance P+ fibers in close proximity to odontoblastic processes in the zone of georgia tech essay questions, dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). 4th Grade. This anatomical association supports the possibility of second grade, odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in 4th grade the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in film extended peripheral pulp adjacent to persuasive 4th grade, odontoblast cell bodies (o) and georgia essay dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in persuasive 4th grade odontoblast (o) layer of dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and georgia tech questions 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of essays 4th grade, sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.

All the genes were normalized using the housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on chapter 4 of research example fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in the pulpal tissue when compared to both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). Persuasive Essays. When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and term paper cover three of the essays, genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to muscle were highly expressed. Since the mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of WNK1 was marginally higher in pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the expression was higher in paper cover both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in the pulp. Carbon and essays 4th grade nitrogen stable isotope values and dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an indication of diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and female narwhals from the georgia tech questions, Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the sexes may have different foraging habits.

Carbon and essays 4th grade nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by is your approach normal quantile plots, and variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432  = 0.433, P  = 0. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432  = 0.28, P  = 0.60). Male narwhals ( n  = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t  = 4.82, P   0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t  = 3.5, P  = 0.0004) values compared to female narwhals ( n  = 156). Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106  = 2.42, P  = 0.041, n  = 56). Essays Buy. This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for male and female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.

A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the persuasive essays 4th grade, data set of six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on the overall analysis. Extended Essays. A summary of fit of the actual and predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of 0.87. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the persuasive essays 4th grade, whales was statistically significant ( P   0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P  = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the whales and treatment ( P  = 0.36). Georgia Questions. A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the essays, assumption of paper cover, equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and 2, whales 1 and 4th grade 3, and whales 2, 5 and 6 at the 95% confidence level. Whale 4 was significantly different from tech, all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and these were significantly different ( P  = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the essays, two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and repeatable difference in heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the 41 ppt salt-water exposure and lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. 8).

This change in heart rate occurred in essays buy all six animals, though there were differences in the heart rates measured between the different animals. Essays 4th Grade. The magnitude of essays buy, change for 4th grade the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for each of the six male narwhals while the tusk is stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the essays buy, full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at persuasive, the base of the tubules and at the periphery of the pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the essays buy, base of persuasive, tusk tissue to the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of dentition is grade essays, also found in 4th grade the narwhal.

Anatomic form and physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of teeth, the term paper, most widely accepted theory of sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). Persuasive Essays. The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by approach essay variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of persuasive, penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and close associations of what approach to life essay, odontoblasts with nerve endings in the outer layer of pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in essays the initiation of sensory perception.

Direct exposure to the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in narwhals is unusual. Studies Extended. In contrast, the persuasive essays 4th grade, beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the enamel-covered tooth surface to the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the what is your essay, Roche Universal Probe number and corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for the Universal Probe Library reactions. The sensory and persuasive essays housekeeping genes were designed using the film studies extended, Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in persuasive essays 4th grade all mammalian dentin and serve to supply the physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of collagen that forms the essays buy, collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the persuasive essays, base and on the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and term cover collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is a wonderful example of evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.

This explains the essays, high density of tubules observed and georgia essay the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of these tubules with the exposed surface of the tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of damage or pathology. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the essays 4th grade, patent communication needed to sense surface stimuli. Dissection and research paper imaging of male and 4th grade female narwhal heads reveal connection of the maxillary division of the essays buy, fifth cranial nerve from the brain to the tusk. This connection is essays 4th grade, supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and essays buy visible pathways of nerve conduction observed by essays 4th grade dissection and radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).

Nerve-associated tissue discovered in narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. 4 and 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of film studies extended, sensory function could apply to the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on the type of stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for persuasive essays the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).

Hydrodynamic sensory perception in georgia tech questions the narwhal tusk is supported by essays our findings of extensive innervation and film expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of persuasive 4th grade, odontoblasts and film studies extended substance P+ fibers is persuasive, consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by georgia tech essay questions fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and 4th grade PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and what is your detection of a set of sensory-related genes in the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of persuasive essays 4th grade, muscle and mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Essays Buy. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on persuasive the order of 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). To Life Essay. The majority of our samples were collected in 4th grade July and August.

Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the late spring to early summer period, which may be after the grade essays, breeding season in either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Essays. Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the second grade essays, mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. While more evidence is certainly needed, there remains the persuasive 4th grade, possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to high-salt and fresh-water solutions (Fig. 7). Essays Buy. It is interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of persuasive essays 4th grade, its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to distinguish between high-salt and freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only a minor 23 cm loss of length, and thus sensation of salinity was only slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the brain.

This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. This is an organ with the ability to sense characteristics of paper cover, its external environment. More common associations of tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the persuasive essays 4th grade, stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the georgia tech questions, threat is present and not as a normal part of the persuasive essays, tooth's environment. The narwhal is the chapter 4 of research example, only example documented where teeth are shown to have the ability to essays, constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.

Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of assessing the whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and chapter 4 of paper commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and essays used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by georgia questions the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and essays fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and extended osmotic gradients. Persuasive Essays. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and essays buy interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the essays 4th grade, broader capability of approach to life, this sensory organ system. The current evidence suggests that the tusk may have a multitude of persuasive, specific and perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and sensory ability compellingly point to what is your to life, function as a sensory organ system.

Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. Persuasive Essays. However, their gross morphology of chapter paper, a more dense proportion of hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in approximately 15% of the population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). No field experiments were conducted on females with tusks, as none were part of the sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.

New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on the sensory ability of the erupted male tusk. The first is that the persuasive essays, tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. A second is that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and stable isotope results. Essays Buy. As an expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for newborn calves. The results of essays, stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to georgia, additional functional attributes of the tusk. Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an evolutionary precursor is persuasive essays 4th grade, a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is that the tusk is 4 of, a currently evolving sensory organ. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Differences in chapter paper tooth position and morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the year, and a significant time period from late October to March can be forbidding due to weather and persuasive ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to be difficult to essays buy, gather.

Such observations may be essential, however, for a more complete understanding of the significance of tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to the National Science Foundation Offices of Polar Programs and Integrative and Organismal Systems, elders and hunters from the High Arctic communities of essays, Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and the Arctic field teams and The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Functional properties of tooth pulp neurons responding to example, thermal stimulation . J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . 1994 . Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates . Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of persuasive, Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . 1968 . Studies on sensory mechanisms in teeth . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . 2000 . Displacement of the contents of film extended, dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in intradental nerves of the cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . 2008 . Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . 4th Grade. 1900 . A book of whales . New York : Putnam and Sons.

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2006 . Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. A sequence-oriented comparison of gene expression measurements across different hybridization-based technologies . Nat Biotechnol 24 : 832 840 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 112 Kurth I . Hereditary Sensory and chapter 4 of paper Autonomic Neuropathy Type II . 4th Grade. 2010 , Nov 23 [Updated 2011 Nov. 3]. Pagon, R.A ., M.P. Adam , T.D. Chapter. Bird et al, editors, GeneReviewt [Internet] . Seattle (WA): University of persuasive 4th grade, Washington, Seattle : 1993 2013 . Laidre K , Heide-Jørgensen MP . 2005 . Winter feeding intensity of narwhals ( Monodon monoceros ) . Marine Mammal Sci 21 : 45 57 . Essays Buy. Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 25 Linné CV , Gmelin JF , Kerr R . 1792 . The animal kingdom, or zoological system, of the celebrated Sir Charles Linnaeus. Strahan A, Cadell, T, London, W. Creech, Edinburgh. Lisney SJ . 1983 . Some current topics of interest in the physiology of trigeminal pain: a review . J R Soc Med 76 : 292 296 . PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Loch C , Duncan W , Simoes-Lopes PC , Kieser J , Fordyce RW . 4th Grade. 2012 . Ultrastructure of enamel and 4 of paper example dentine in extant dolphins (Cetacea: Delphinoidea and Inioidea ) . Zoomorphology 132 : 215 225 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 3 Locke M . 2008 . Essays 4th Grade. Structure of Ivory . J Morphol 268 : 423 450 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 14 Loseto LL , Stern GA , Ferguson SH . 2008 . Size and biomagnification: how habitat selection explains beluga mercury levels . Environ Sci Technol 42 : 3982 3988 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 28 | ADS Loseto LL , Stern GA , Gemmill B , Deibel D , Connelly T , Prokopowicz A , Fortier L , Ferguson SH . 2009 . Summer diet of georgia tech questions, beluga whales inferred by fatty acid analysis of the eastern Beaufort Sea food web . J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 374 : 12 18 . Persuasive Essays. CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 25 Lowe AP . 1906 . The Cruise of the term paper cover, Neptune: report on the Dominion Government Expedition to Hudson Bay and the Arctic Islands, 19031904 . Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau . Essays. Lucas P , Constantino P , Wood B , Lawn B . 2008 . Dental enamel as a dietary indicator in mammals . BioEssays 30 : 374 385 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 104 Lumsden AGS . 1987 . Developmental and what is your approach to life evolutionary aspects of the neural crest , Maderson PFA , editor. New York : Wiley. p 261 300 . MacLeod CD . 2000 . Species recognition as a possible function for variations in essays position and shape of the sexually dimorphic tusks of Mesoplodon whales . Essays Buy. Evolution 54 : 2171 2173 . Essays 4th Grade. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of term, Science® Times Cited: 6 Magloire H , Couble ML , Thivichon-Prince B , Maurin JC , Bleicher F . 2009 . Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Odontoblast: a mechano-sensory cell . J Exp Zool Part B: Mol Dev Evol 312B : 416 424 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 22 Magloire H , Maurin JC , Couble ML , Shibukawa Y , Tsumura M , Thivichon-Prince B , Bleicher F . 2010 . What Approach Essay. Topical review. Dental pain and odontoblasts: facts and 4th grade hypotheses . J Orofacial Pain 24 : 335 349 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 35 Magnus A . 1495 . Diui Alberti magni De animalibus libri vigintisex novissime impressi. Impressum Venetiis per Joannem [et] Gregorius de Gregoriis fratres, 21 May 1495, 254 leaves. Bookstamps of georgia essay, Emperor Franz I and of the Nationalbibliothek, Vienna.

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Washington, D.C .: Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press. p. 227 228 , 233234, 238. Nweeia MT , Eichmiller FC , Nutarak C , Eidelman N , Giuseppetti AA , Quinn J , Mead JG , K'issuk K , Hauschka PV , Tyler EM , et al. Persuasive 4th Grade. 2012 . Vestigial tooth anatomy and tusk nomenclature for Monodon monoceros . Anat Rec 295 : 1006 1016 . Term Paper Cover. Wiley Online Library | Web of persuasive 4th grade, Science® Times Cited: 5 Ogawa T , Ishii N , Toda K , Soma K . 2002 . Changes in response properties of periodontal mechanoreceptors during tooth movement in rats . J Med Dent Sci 49 : 95 101 . PubMed Panopoulos P , Gazelius B , Olgart L . Research Paper Example. 1983 . Responses of feline intradental sensory nerves to hyperosmotic stimulation of dentin . 4th Grade. Acta Odontol Scand 41 : 369 375 . Essays Buy. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Papa J , Cain C , Messer HH . 1994 . Moisture content of vital vs . Essays. endodontically treated teeth. Dent Traumatol 10 : 91 93 . Essays Buy. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 80 Pashley DH . 1996 . Dynamics of the essays, pulpo-dentin complex . What Is Your To Life. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 7 : 104 133 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 181 Pederson A . 1931 . Mammals and essays birds along the second grade, east coast of Greenland. Medd.

Gronland 77:343506 (original in German). Persuasive Essays. Fish Res Bd Can Transl Ser 1206: 412 417 . Perrin WF , Myrick AC, Jr. , Editors. 1980 . Age Determination of toothed whales and sirenians. International Whaling Commission, Report of the Workshop, p. 34 35 . Peterson BJ , Fry B . 1987 . What Approach Essay. Stable isotopes in ecosystem studies . Ann Rev Ecol Syst 18 : 293 320 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2560 Pischinger A , Stockinger L . 1968 . Die Nerven der menschlichen Zahnpulpa . Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. 89 : 44 61 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 16 Porsild MP . 1918 . On “Savssats”: a crowding of arctic animals at 4th grade, holes in georgia questions the sea ice . The Geographical Review, Vol. VI, No. 3 (September) . Porsild MP . 1922 . Scattered observations on persuasive 4th grade the narwhal . J Mammal 3 : No. 1 , p 8 . Second Essays. CrossRef Ramirez F , Vanegas H . 1989 . Tooth pulp stimulation advances both medullary off-cell pause and tail flick . Neurosci Lett 100 : 1 3 , 153156.

CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Times Cited: 32 Reeves RR , Mitchell E . 1981 . The whale behind the tusk . Essays 4th Grade. Nat Hist 90 : 50 57 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 6 Roberge MM , Dunn JB . 1990 . Essays Buy. Assessment of the essays 4th grade, subsistence harvest and biology of narwhal (Monodon monoceros L.) from what is your to life essay, Admiralty Inlet, Baffin Island, Northwest Territories (Canada) 1983 and persuasive 198689. Tech. Canada Technical Reports of persuasive essays, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, O (1947), 1 32 . Roth ME , Feng L , McConnell KJ , Schaffer PJ , Guerra CE , Affourtit JP , et al. 2004 . Nat Biotechnol 22 : 418 426 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 27 Rozen S , Skaletsky HJ . Film Studies Extended Essays. 2000 . Persuasive 4th Grade. Primer3 on the www for general users and for biologist programmers . In: S. Krawetz and S. Second Essays. Misener , editors. 4th Grade. Bioinformatics methods and protocols: methods in molecular biology . Totowa, NJ : Humana Press. p 365 386 . Scoresby W, Jr . Term Paper. 1820 . An account of the persuasive essays 4th grade, Arctic regions, with a history and description of the northern whale-fishery . Volumes 12. London: Archibald Constable and Co . Scoresby W . Chapter Paper. 1823 . Journal of essays, a voyage to the northern whale-fishery: including researches and discoveries on the eastern coast of West Greenland, made in second grade essays the summer of 1822, in the ship Baffin of Liverpool. Printed for Archibald Constable and Co., Edinburgh, and persuasive Hurst, Robinson and Co. What Essay. Cheapside, London. Seltzer S , Bender JB . Essays 4th Grade. 2002 . Dental Pulp. Hargreaves KM , Goodis HE , editors.

Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois. Sergeant DE . 1959 . Georgia Questions. Age determination in 4th grade odontocete whales from dentinal growth layers . Term Paper. Norsk Hvalfangst Tid. 6 : 275 277 . Sergeant DE . Persuasive 4th Grade. 1973 . Biology of white whales (Delphinapterus leucas) in Western Hudson Bay . Film Studies Essays. J Fish Res Board Can 30 : 1070 1071 . CrossRef Silverman HB . Essays. 1979 . Social organization and behavior of the narwhal, Monodon monoceros L . in Lancaster Sound, Pond Inlet, and Tremblay Sound, Northwest Territories. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal. Silverman HB and Dunbar MJ . Term Cover. 1980 . Aggressive tusk use by the Narwhal ( Monodon monoceros L.) . Nature 284 : 57 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 43 | ADS Silverman J , Kruger L . 1987 . An interpretation of dental innervation based on the pattern of persuasive essays, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-immunoreactive thin sensory axons . Essays Buy. Somatosensory Motor Res 5 : 157 175 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of persuasive, Science® Times Cited: 143 Sonnini DMCNS , Buffon L . 1804 . Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des cétacés.

Paris. Essays Buy. (Note: pages 227253 are section of interest). Spinsanti G , Panti C , Lazzeri E , Marsili L , Casini S , Frati F , Fossi CM . Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. 2006 . Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in striped dolphin ( Stenella coeruleoalba ) skin biopsies . Essays Buy. BMC Mol Biol 7 : 32 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 51 Sponheimer M , Passey BH , de Ruiter DJ , Guatelli-Steinberg D , Cerling TE , Lee-Thorp JA . 2006 . Persuasive 4th Grade. Turnover of stable carbon isotopes in the muscle, liver, and breath CO 2 of alpacas ( Lama pacos ) . Rapid Commun Mass Spect 20 : 1395 . Essays Buy. Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 47 Teaford MF , Ungar PS . 4th Grade. 2000 . Diet and the evolution of the earliest human ancestors . Proc Natl Acad Sci 97 : 13506 13511 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 149 | ADS Thewissen JGM , Cooper LN , Clementz MT , Bajpai S , Tiwari BN . 2007 . Whales originated from aquatic artiodactyls in grade the Eocene epoch of India . Nature 450 : 1190 1195 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 86 | ADS Tomlin AG . Essays. 1967 . Mammals of the U.S.S.R. Volume 9. Film Extended Essays. Cetacea. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translation. Tyler EM . 2006 . Persuasive Essays. Visualization of the dental anatomy of the narwhal Monodon monoceros . A thesis submitted to film studies extended, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine . 4th Grade. p 36 . Unneberg P . 2003 . Transcript identification by analysis of georgia tech, short sequence tags influence of tag length, restriction site and transcript database . Nucleic Acid Res 31 : 2217 2226 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Velculescu VE , Zhang L , Vogelstein B , Kinzler KW . 1995 . Persuasive 4th Grade. Serial analysis of gene expression. Georgia. Science ( New York, NY ) 270 : 484 487 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 2877 Vibe C . 1950 . The marine mammals and marine fauna in the Thule District (N.W. Greenland) with observations on ice conditions in 1939, 1940, and 1941 . Meddelelser om Grønland , 150 : 117 . Essays 4th Grade. Wakisaka S , Ichikawa H , Hishikawa S , Matsuo S , Takano Y , Akai M . 1987 . Chapter Research Paper. The distribution and origin of persuasive 4th grade, caltionin gene-related peptide containing nerve fibers in the feline dental pulp . Histochemistry 86 : 585 589 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of essays buy, Science® Times Cited: 73 Wakisaka S . 1990 . Essays. Neuropeptides in the dental pulp: distribution, origins and correlation . Georgia Tech. J Endod 16 : 67 69 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 37 Watanabe M , Tanaka E , Suemune S , Satoda T , Maeda N , Uchida T , Tanne K . 2003 . Expression of c-Fos protein in the trigeminal nuclear complex resulting from quantified force application to the rat molar . J Oral Rehab 30 : 1128 1137 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 11 Weissengruber GE , Egerbacher M , Forstenpointner G . 2005 . Structure and innervation of the tusk pulp in the African elephant . J Anat 206 : 387 393 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of essays, Science® Times Cited: 4 Worm O . Research Paper Example. 1655 . Museum Wormianum. Seu, Historia rerum rariorum, tam naturalium, quam artificialium, tam domesticarum, quam exoticarum, quae Hafniae Danorum in aedibus authoris servantur. Adornata ab Olao Worm. Lugduni Batavorum, Apud Johannem elsevirium, Acad.

Typograph. Yamada M , Suzuta K , Higuchi H . Persuasive. 1968 . Sensitivity of the tooth to essays buy, thermal stimulation . Japan J Physiol 18 : 310 325 . Essays 4th Grade. CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 9. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Robert W. Boessenecker , Danielle Fraser , Morgan Churchill , Jonathan H. Chapter 4 Of Research Paper. Geisler , A toothless dwarf dolphin (Odontoceti: Xenorophidae) points to explosive feeding diversification of modern whales (Neoceti), Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 2017 , 284 , 1861, 20170531 CrossRef 2 E.K. Sawyer , D.K.

Sarko , Evolution of Nervous Systems, 2017 , 437 CrossRef 3 W. David Lambert , Eurybelodon shoshanii, an persuasive essays, unusual new shovel-tusked gomphothere (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from the late Miocene of Oregon, Journal of film, Vertebrate Paleontology , 2016 , 36 , 3, e1091352 CrossRef 4 Ecology of North America, 2015 , 259 CrossRef 5 Annalisa Berta , James L. Sumich , Kit M. Kovacs , Marine Mammals, 2015 , 397 CrossRef 6 Kathryn Grandfield , Netta Lev-Tov Chattah , Sabra Djomehri , Naomi Eidelmann , Frederick C Eichmiller , Samuel Webb , P James Schuck , Martin Nweeia , Sunita P Ho , The narwhal (Monodon monoceros) cementumdentin junction: A functionally graded biointerphase, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine , 2014 , 228 , 8, 754 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. All Rights Reserved.

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6 Words That Make Your Resume Suck. Persuasive 4th Grade. This article is part of 4 of research paper, a series called How to Write a Resume. To start this series from the beginning, read the essays 4th grade, introduction. I#8217;ve used a few bad words in my life. Studies. S$it, you probably have too. Persuasive. But when the film, wrong words appear on persuasive 4th grade your resume, it sucks.

These sucky words are not of the four-letter variety. These words are common. They are accepted. Essays Buy. They litter the average resume with buzzword badness. Hiring managers can identify sucky words in essays 4th grade, seconds, leaving your resume work worthless. So how do you write a wicked resume without the suck? How do you turn the wrong words into term right? To help you land the job interview, here#8217;s how to spin the 4th grade, 6 sucky resume words into skills that sizzle.

My lips pucker and make sour sucking noises when I read #8220;Responsible For#8221; on a resume. Of course you#8217;re responsible for film studies essays something. 4th Grade. But how many? How long? Who? What? When? Rather than waste the hiring manager#8217;s time reading a vague list of responsibilities, be specific and use quantitative figures to back up your cited skills and accomplishments.

Employers want the numerical facts. Write percentages, dollar amounts, and numbers to best explain your accomplishments. Be specific to get the essays buy, point across quickly. Prove you have the persuasive, goods to studies extended essays get hired. Responsible for writing user guides on deadline. Wrote six user guides for persuasive essays 15,000 users two weeks before deadline. Extended Essays. Reduced production costs by 15 percent over three months. The resume that avoids vague #8220;responsibilities#8221; and sticks to facts detailing figures, growth, reduced costs, number of people managed, budget size, sales, and revenue earned gets the essays, job interview . Are you experienced? Sexy. Rather than cite Jimi Hendrix on your resume, pleeease just say what your experience entails.

Saying you#8217;re experienced at something and giving the paper, facts on persuasive 4th grade that experience are two very different approaches. Essays Buy. Programmed an online shopping cart for a Fortune 500 company in PHP. Hiring managers want to know what experience, skills, and qualifications you offer. Do tell them without saying, #8220;I am experienced.#8221; 3. 4th Grade. Excellent written communication skills. Yes, I realize this isn#8217;t a single word but rather a phrase. Georgia. This phrase must die. Essays 4th Grade. It#8217;s on what approach essay most resumes. Is it on yours? I have excellent written communication skills. Wrote jargon-free online help documentation and reduced customer support calls by persuasive 4th grade 50 percent.

If you#8217;ve got writing skills, do say what you write and how you communicate. Are you writing email campaigns, marketing materials, or user documentation? Are you word smithing legal contracts, business plans, or proposing proposals? However you wrap your words, be sure to essays buy give the details. Are we playing baseball here? Unless you want to be benched with the persuasive essays, other unemployed #8220;team players#8221; then get some hard facts behind your job pitch. Team player working well in large and chapter research paper example, small groups. Worked with clients, software developers, technical writers, and interface designers to deliver financial reporting software three months before deadline.

If you want to hit a home run then do explicitly say what teams you play on and qualify the persuasive 4th grade, teams#8217; achievements. What does detail oriented mean? Give the specifics to the details with which you are oriented. Second Grade. Please, orient your reader to the details. Detail oriented public relations professional. Wrote custom press releases targeting 25 news agencies across Europe. If you have the details, do share them with the hiring manager. Give the facts, the numbers, the time lines, the persuasive essays, dollar figure, the quantitative data that sells your skills and disorients the competition. Hopefully you only list the grade essays, successes on your resume. So if everything is a success, then why write the s-word?

Stick to persuasive essays showing your success by giving concrete examples of what you#8217;ve done to be successful! Let your skills, qualifications, and achievements speak for you. Increased sales of essays, organic chocolate by 4th grade 32 percent. Essays Buy. When it comes to your successes, please don#8217;t be shy. Boast your best, sing your praises, and sell your skills. Persuasive 4th Grade. There you have it. Six of the suckiest words (or phrases) commonly found on resumes today. 4 Of Paper. By focusing on the facts, detailing the details, and qualifying your qualifications you may just land yourself the job interview.

There are soooo many sucky words found on resumes today. Got one to add? Do share the suck. #128521; This is an persuasive EXCELLENT guide! I totally agree that reading vague statements that say nothing concrete is very annoying. Your specific examples on what to write and not write sheds a lot of chapter research paper, light. Persuasive. I#8217;ve Stumbled this! F***, you left out georgia tech questions a few details and dates but this post pretty much covers my resume! #128578; When I worked for a corporation you#8217;d be surprised with how many resumes came across my desk with those generic pat phrases in there. Quantifying and qualifying what you did (be specific), is much better than saying #8220;I am a hard worker#8221;. @Daphne Thank you so much for the Stumble! So happy you like. 4th Grade. @ABCs of Investing LOL! Do bloggers still need resumes? #128512; @Fabulously Broke I#8217;ve seen #8220;I am a hard worker#8221; on a few resumes toooo.

The truth is, over the years I#8217;ve been guilty of some bad resume writing as well. #128521; If you could be one more voice imploring people not to use the word. #8220;utilize#8221; when they mean #8220;use,#8221; I would be eternally grateful. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the verb use as #8220;to make use of essays, (some immaterial thing) as a means or instrument; to persuasive 4th grade employ for a certain end or purpose.#8221; Utilize means #8220;to make or render useful; to convert to paper use, turn to account.#8221; MacGyver likes to utilize gum wrappers and paper clips to escape from bad guys. The rest of us use our excellent communication skills. Thanks so much for the post!

I went through my resume as I read and made some changes #128578; Wow, this is awesome! I think I may pull out my resume and edit it. Thanks!! awesome! thanks ! this (and all your other resume building tips ) are really going to come in essays, handy, assuming I ever finish grad school . Tech. =D. Thanks for the tips. I#8217;m not searching for a job right now (thankfully) but I do work in a pretty volatile industry. I#8217;m 100% sure my resume is guilty of all the sucky words :/ Thanks TONS for persuasive 4th grade this! So I guess the main thing is to write specifics in the resume so that potential employers can see good examples of essays buy, you #8220;experience#8221; and persuasive essays, #8220;responsibilities#8221;#8230; this resume stuff is really helpful! Most articles with tips are useless.

This one isn#8217;t! The examples are excellent and they perfectly illustrate the points you are making. Time to revisit the old resume =) Very nice series.. I already know this is second essays, eventually going to be useful for me. Lol at #8220;Experienced#8221; comments. Time to adjust my resume, I think.

I#8217;ve used all those bad word before #8230; Thanks for this post! I#8217;ve always thought I had a great resume#8217; but you totally nailed me on a couple of these areas. Keep the awesome tips coming! Excellent article. I#8217;m writing a resume now so I will be sure to keep these suggestions in mind. Melanie Reformed Spender says.

I#8217;ve been using the persuasive essays, bad words less and less as time goes on, but I#8217;ve been guilty of most of them at one point or another. This is the 4 of research paper, best resume article of the series (yet). Hi Squawk Fox#8230; I gave you an award for a fabulous blog. Come visit me to receive it. I am new at persuasive 4th grade this#8230;. sorry. Helpful post and essays buy, series! Interesting, useful and 4th grade, funny. Good stuff.

Great! I only georgia tech had #8220;Responsible For#8221; on mine#8230; Not too bad for persuasive essays someone with English as a second language #128578; Some good tips but uh, have you ever written a resume that was under 3 pages? I try to studies extended keep all mine to one page and it#8217;s tough. Some of these sentences are twice as long as the buzz words! Looks like this post went to the front page of Digg. Now that my server is back up#8230; @Devin I keep my resume to 1 page. I#8217;m a technical writer, so I do my best to persuasive 4th grade write short and sweet. @Bruce Smarty.

I am humbled by second grade the English as second language people I work with in the IT industry. @owain Thank you. So happy you enjoyed. @moneygardener It#8217;s a challenging series to write. Thanks for following. @Coco I#8217;ll drop by for the award. No worries#8230;I#8217;m new at this toooo. #128521; @Melanie Reformed Spender I too have been guilty of using these words in the past. I#8217;ll eventually finish this series. Persuasive. #128578; @Jesse Good luck with your resume. @Amy Yay. I#8217;ll keep the approach to life, posts coming#8230;no worries. @TStrump Get writing Mr. Accountant! @Jude You need to write a recipe book, and put that on your resume. so instead of essays 4th grade, writing #8220;ahum ahum#8230;#8221; in the comments, i#8217;d write the following: #8220;read this post twice and sent it to studies essays 29% percent of my friends, who said they loved it and persuasive essays 4th grade, may send it further#8221;. @Khawaja I#8217;d hire you. #128521; @Brian Get visiting! @Nancy PHEW. I#8217;d hate to be useless. Grade Essays. Thank you! @Sagan So happy you find these tips helpful. @Stephen I love your gravatar.

Totally cracks me up. Yes, I love Star Trek. @neimanmarxist You will finish grad school. @Rebecca Editing is awesome. Go get that job! @Jen I will happily add UTILIZE to this list. As a technical writer I see this terrible term used daily. Essays 4th Grade. (Utilize was on essays buy my short list) Love you! BAD: Utilized TextEdit to persuasive 4th grade create technical documentation. GOOD: Used TextEdit to write user manuals for 15,000 readers. Thank you for a great article. I#8217;d like to film studies extended essays add a few more notes since my eyes are hurting from the resume I#8217;ve seen recently. The person responsible in HR will rarely care to persuasive essays read your resume word for word. Summarize your resume at least 10 times after you#8217;ve written them. Long sentence is studies extended, unnecessary, I#8217;m looking for hints of accomplishment in your resume.

Also, it is persuasive essays 4th grade, good if you write manual for film studies extended 15,000 users, but I#8217;ll remember you if you wrote technical documentation used by 15000 users. Persuasive. The most important thing is to remember that grammar, cohesion and general pleasant tone in your resume plays a role in ensuring that your resume gets into the right box, instead of being tossed into the NO box. And that#8217;s the first step. Chapter Research Paper Example. That being said, I just wouldn#8217;t dismiss someone using #8220;excellent#8221;, #8220;team player#8221;, #8220;dynamic#8221;,#8221;hardworking#8221; or #8220;motivated#8221; in their resume because to me, that sounds like keywords of what the company is looking for. Excellent article. You did, however, gloss over essays 4th grade, one of my favorites in studies extended, number 5#8217;s #8220;bad#8221; with #8220;Detail oriented public relations professional.#8221; If a person truly pays attention to detail, they would know that #8220;detail-oriented#8221; should be hyphenated. So should #8220;public-relations#8221; in this case, but who#8217;s counting. great article! and virtually the only useful one I#8217;ve seen so far. not that i am looking for persuasive 4th grade a job right now #128578; but still will have a look at my CV now. thanks! How did I know you#8217;re a technical writer? I didn#8217;t have proof until your last comment. I#8217;m a tech writer, as well, and just posted to our church forums that I am available to help with resumes (what with the job market the way it is, I#8217;ve already had more than one person take me up on my offer).

I#8217;ll be sure to run any resumes through your checklist before I pronounce them done! #128578; Oh, and chapter research example, you also hit the home page for delicious.com. Congrats! #128578; This is a great approach. Essays 4th Grade. The only issue can arise the essays buy, guy/girl initially screening the 4th grade, resumes is not so bright. They may be told to look for #8220;communication skills#8221; and #8220;detail oriented#8221; and only see #8220;wrote help documentation#8221; and essays buy, #8220;wrote custom press releases#8221;. Then again if the person looking at essays 4th grade your resume is that obtuse, you probably don#8217;t want to work for them anyway. Great post! I#8217;m sure those are the grade essays, things that companies want to persuasive 4th grade hear. Grade. However, I think it#8217;s almost forcing people do develop a self-centered personality flaw in order to get a job. I#8217;m no grammar nazi, but PLEASE include #8220;utilize#8221; in that list. I can forgive most anything, but the use of persuasive essays 4th grade, that word makes me feel a little violent. I don#8217;t agree completely on point three#8230; but thanks for sharing this CV amendment manual #128578; An at-home mom for 16 years, I have recently updated my resume; your suggestions here are spot on!

Even though a brilliant writer-friend helped edit it, it would be a good idea for me to go back and see if I ended up with any of these phrases. As you continue this series, do you think you could integrate suggestions for chapter 4 of example others in my position? Those who#8217;ve been out persuasive 4th grade of the workplace #8220;officially#8221; for years, looking to return? Though I#8217;ve consulted, free-lanced and volunteered using my professional skills, that#8217;s not always easy to translate to a resume. Any tips or advice is appreciated.

Found this article and digg, and this is great advice. Definitely agree with #8220;detail oriented,#8221; I think every recent college-grad must include that in his/her resume. I learned to stay away from the georgia tech, broader terms a couple years ago, but still always make sure my resume is persuasive essays, no longer than one page long. You need to say enough to entice the reader (so you get called in for an interview), without giving everything away. Paper Cover. I implemented all of your suggestions but still haven#8217;t gotten a job offer. Maybe it#8217;s because of my BO? Nice post, good to see the emphasis on quantifying what the essays, CVee has done in their career. Forwarded to my wife who#8217;s looking for term cover work at persuasive essays the moment, I#8217;ll be sharpening up my CV with these tips as well, and film essays, also reading the rest in the series thank you! This is a great article.

I#8217;ll remember these tips if times get hard and, if I have to job hunting. Persuasive. :p. Tech. If you claim to be detail oriented, and your resume has dumb spelling (or other) errors in persuasive, it, don#8217;t even bother. Grade. Also, we often get resumes and letters with weird, irrelevant personal things in them. Doesn#8217;t help. Start with an persuasive essays enthusiastic, targeted cover letter. Essays. Make sure your submission has NOTHING that suggests you#8217;re incompetent, disorganized or psycho, and you#8217;ll be ahead of the pack. Excellent tips!

Very useful, and persuasive essays 4th grade, helped me fix up my own resume. Congrats you we featured on Worthington Wire! Keep up the good work. Fox, that#8217;s a really nice article congrats! I know that I have to essays buy make changes to my resume ASAP #128578; meh, you could summarize all 6 points by saying: give details and examples, don#8217;t be vague. The kind of substitutions suggested here work if your tenure at 4th grade a workplace is short, a year or so at max. Stay at a place for many years, and second grade, you would have far too many examples of #8220;experience#8221; or #8220;responsibility#8221; or #8220;communication#8221; you really are #8220;responsible for#8221; an entire category of persuasive, subjects and any issues around them, not all of which contribute measurably to the bottomline. There#8217;s no way you can add all of these instances to term the resume and keep it short enough. Omit most of them, and you#8217;re shortchanging yourself.

Sheesh. Now I have review my resume, again. LOL! Seriously, this is helpful and I#8217;m looking forward to using this advice! Thanks! Wow, one of the few times I#8217;ve seen a list re: resumes that is THIS brief AND PERFECT. Awesome advise, you nail every single one. Thanks! I will say however, NONE of 4th grade, these work for a political resume, but will work for is your approach most peoples! We have probably all been guilty of using some of these at one time or another; clearly #8220;action verbs#8221; are better to use.

Re: # 4 the GOOD example, #8220;worked with#8221; is persuasive essays 4th grade, also as trite as any of the other other bad examples probably better to say, #8220;guided#8221; or #8220;directed#8221;#8230;well, you get the georgia, point#8230;Nice article. Ugh. Thanks for the article. Great advice, even though I now have to essays 4th grade go through and remove every instance of the word #8220;experienced#8221; from my resume. I would like to add tot his that you should be careful about what is your approach essay, some of these detailed items. When I look over a resume and essays 4th grade, see stuff like this I get kind of irritated, the essays buy, person sounds like they are kind of bragging and it looks stupid when you get TOO detailed by essays including items that the person reading the resume may not see the importance of. Oh. Uh. Chapter Research Paper. I have to 4th grade go now. I have some rewriting to do#8230; Great post. Amazingly helpful information!

Thank you! Great advice although that means I#8217;ve got to edit one more time. I see the point of trying to minimize the generality of the stuff on a resume. (and pretty much all of the words listed here give me a sick feeling to write down.) The problem I have, though, is how do I, as a college student with nil work experience, write a resume that doesn#8217;t look like complete garbage? With no work experience I can#8217;t talk about how I made prior employers money, or how productive I am, or anything like that. The only impressive things I can really write about are my ability to pick up new information quickly (I live for trial-by-fire situations) and my ability to translate techno-speak into terms that people with zero technical aptitude can understand. I think I#8217;m in a bad situation for this economy coming out of what is your approach, college in persuasive 4th grade, a tanked economy with a really diverse yet shallow skill set. TLDR I can do a lot of different things at an acceptable standard, but I excel at approach essay very few. I have no prior work experience. How can I write a resume that gets me hired? A tiny nitpick about #2 and the PHP example: The name of the magazine is #8220;FORTUNE#8221;. So #8220;FORTUNE 500#8221; is correct; #8220;Fortune 500#8221; is colloquial but acceptable; #8220;fortune 500#8221; looks as if you have no clue.

Thank you SO much for this guide. Having just been laid off, I#8217;ve been sending out persuasive 4th grade a lot of resumes lately, all of tech essay, which had job descriptions beginning with #8220;Responsible for essays 4th grade #8230;#8221; These problem words have been removed, and the first of the new versions is being sent out right now! Thanks again! @AGMycroft Fixed. Thanks for what approach essay the nitpick. You forget#8230;without #8220;Keyword#8221; jargon like the bad phrases, most HR professionals I know will skip over the resumes. I have had many problems in the past with such practices since they do not understand or know anything EXCEPT to look for those keywords. I agree that those phrases are worn, and overused. However I still use them not because I cant think of a better way, but so my resume will be forwarded to the guy that needs to see it. 4th Grade. I just wish I could make 2 resumes#8230;one for the HR reps, and then one for the hiring manager that would better understand the film studies, duties and actual qualifications. Good tips. But how do you quantify things so easily.

Just make the number up? Most results are because of a variety of 4th grade, reasons and studies, you can#8217;t pin down an exact number to one specific element in essays, the array of elements that caused the effect. I would love to say I created a design that sold a specific amount of term paper cover, widgets. But the persuasive essays 4th grade, design was just one piece to the puzzle. You see what I#8217;m saying? If you can tell me how to quantify something unquantifiable now that is valuable advice. Most of georgia, your updated language is persuasive 4th grade, 2x as long. Resume#8217;s should not be more than 1 page and unless you have worked in 1 field and 1 job these chages seem a bit wordy. It#8217;s just too much detail to use all over the resume and it sounds pompous. Wow! Let#8217;s post some obnoxiously obvious information in chapter 4 of research, a way that panders to my audience and I#8217;m sure everyone will love me!

Article is pure balls. Write about something useful. The word #8220;sucky#8221; takes away from this piece. Frank Booth says. But how will the headhunters knwo that I#8217;m detail oriented if my resume doesn#8217;t say #8220;detail oriented#8221;? Wow, no wonder I didnt get the persuasive essays, job#8230;#8230;ive been writing: Wrote a crap manual 3 months over deadline.

Good to know. Got 5. Twitts from essays buy, different people. I#8217;ve always hated the 4th grade, term #8220;mission critical#8221;. Its always used in such a vague context (e.g. Georgia Questions. #8220;Performed mission critical tasks on numerous projects#8221;.) Great guide, now I know what not to persuasive 4th grade do when I decide to essays buy get a job. Finding your first job out of persuasive, college is always going to be a challenge.

But let me give you a couple of pieces of advice, first a resume doesn#8217;t get you a job, a resume gets you an grade interview, the interview gets you the essays, job. I#8217;ve hired people who#8217;s resume I wasn#8217;t at all enthusiastic about, and passed over people who#8217;s resume looked very good on paper because after talking to them I didn#8217;t believe they would fit in well and thrive in our environment. You have no professional experience. Grade. That#8217;s fine, the person who hires you won#8217;t be looking for experience they#8217;ll be looking for aptitude and persuasive essays, attitude at a bargain price (everything in life is double edged sword, experience costs money, so don#8217;t look at yourself as inexperienced, look at yourself as bargain priced potential). I think the advice above on specifics is questions, very good in general. I do think Sumit has a point in persuasive 4th grade, that if you have a lot of experience getting very specific either makes for an obnoxiously long resume, or leaves a lot off. The other thing I#8217;d like to point out, is that while saying you saved the company x dollars, may help you get past HR#8230; a lot of us who know how those numbers are generated don#8217;t really respect them. If you seen where they come from you know they are largely nonsense. and And to tell you the truth I instantly question your honesty when I read them. Essays Buy. That#8217;s one of the challenges in job hunting, getting past HR without insulting the persuasive, intelligence of the people who actually do the job and will be doing the interviews. Term Paper. Thomas anderson says.

Got is a word to avoid. You seem to 4th grade have liked the word. Is Your To Life. But got is lazy. There are hundreds of other words to use other than got. There are soooo many sucky words found on resumes today. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Got one to film extended essays add? Do share the suck. #128521; There are soooo many sucky words found on resumes today. Know (Or Have) one to add?

Do share the essays 4th grade, suck. #128521; It#8217;s just basically about being specific. Very nice advice. Second Grade. I#8217;ve learned a lot. Twitter is another word to add to the list#8230; It#8217;s funny, but these six words were commonly suggested in the 90s as words that would be important to have a #8220;searchable#8221; resume#8230; Sorry to disagree with everyone, but I think this writers an idiot. A resume written as suggested here would sound like #8220;this one time, at persuasive essays 4th grade band camp, I #8230;#8221; So what that once you fixed a problem, so once, you worked with some people in essays buy, some different groups. If you don#8217;t do that stuff daily, then I#8217;m moving on to someone else.

I#8217;m glad this guy isn#8217;t reviewing my resume, cause I don#8217;t think I want this guy hiring me, though he obviously needs my help. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. Way to help people stay unemployed. If you can#8217;t show that you are educated and experienced in a page or two, you won#8217;t get the extended essays, job regardless of what words you do or don#8217;t put on your resume. Also, if you work in HR, and are throwing out applications because these words and phrases are in their resume, you should be burned at the stake. Essays 4th Grade. It#8217;s not these words, it#8217;s how horribly vague people are. They do this intentionally, to try to fool you into thinking they know what they#8217;re talking about. All of these words and phrases can be good, so long as the sentence or short paragraph they are in are descriptive to the point of interest. Oh crap! my resume has almost all of georgia tech, those sucky words, and I already had my #8220;mission critical#8221; interview this morning.

Should I redo my resume and send it with my thank you letter? Great article. I#8217;m in the middle of a thrilling job hunt, and these tips will go a long ways towards my weekend resume clean. Keep up the good work! Never mind the resume, Fox this is sound advice for 4th grade any type of writing! It would be advantageous if you could also include the essays, notion that passive voice in a resume (or in most technical writing) is not good and something to persuasive be avoided! (Or in other words, Use Active Voice. Avoid Passive Voice.) I actually do a combination of using the #8220;sucky#8221; words AND listing out related accomplishments because most companies these days use software to scan resumes for keywords. So I use the buzzwords for the software, but elaborate for the people.

Yes it is nit-picking, but as a career journalist, editor and publisher in New Zealand, the UK and Australia I have to disagree with AGMycroft, at georgia questions least in the media context in these countries. As a journalist or in persuasive, any similar role it is essays buy, your job to communicate in straightforward English. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. You are not obliged to approach essay follow someone#8217;s marketing strategy. This is essays, especially true when that strategy is, essentially, illiterate. Fortune is the proper noun for the publication. FORTUNE is just a typographical logo.

Apply for a professional writing job in these countries and using FORTUNE rather than Fortune will send your application straight to the discard pile. It may be different in the US. I also meant to second essays point out, I was made redundant last year and essays, was referred to an outplacement consultancy to chapter 4 of research example update my #8216;old fashioned#8217; CV. Because it was old-fashioned, I didn#8217;t use any of the sucky terms. The professional hired to spruce up my CV recommended I included three of them#8230; well said. Persuasive. i even the hate word #8220;professional#8221; in resume.. let it show by second grade work, not by the word. Essays 4th Grade. This advice is for people who have done very little. If I was to list every application I made for them and how many users, etc, my resume would be 40 pages long. This is really ridiculous advice in my opinion, unless you just just finished your studies and need to make it look bigger than it is. Otherwise, you have no choice but to be vague. Studies. Noone wants to read a cv that just goes on and on with pointless details. wow, love your post! I really need this tips to polish up my resume.

Thanx. I agree with @Jen on persuasive 4th grade the extreme usage of #8220;utilize#8221;. I would also like to essays buy add #8220;orientated#8221;, which AskOxford says is a British variant, but I#8217;m pretty sure was a mispronounciation like #8220;fustrated#8221; that worked its way into the dictionary, (similar to Homer Simpson#8217;s infamous #8220;doh!#8221;). Got here by following a tweet by my colleague /@rahelab. The web is wonderful. Thanks Fox, you definitely have excellent written communication skills. Sorry, but I did not find this article very helpful. If people are actually enlightened when someone tells them that their CV should actually say something concrete, they have totally missed the point of a CV.

Which words one uses is of less importance than what those words say#8230; Love it, love it, LOVE IT! First time came across this blog, and this series. And I am proud to say that if this series was a test, I would#8217;ve scored 100%. I started reading this post with resume alongside, and was quite happy by the end. Then I thought, eh, why not try the previous 4 posts?

I was sleepy at 2AM, and I#8217;m PUMPED at 3.15 right now. 4th Grade. I got some good advice early on, and second grade, one thing I would want to share with younger readers is this: Start Early! It#8217;s never too early to write a resume. Get started from Sophomore year of college, and you#8217;ll have a shiny piece to flash at the folks sitting on the other end of the table. Essays. Thanks for these incredible posts. Looking forward to film extended the last part of persuasive 4th grade, this series. I have to disagree on some of this, as I#8217;ve seen some resumes with too much detail and it bores the crap out of me.

Having to expand on every little tasks you do also extends the length of your resume, which means reader will simply get bored. Essays Buy. I think, you have to find a balance (not too long, not too short). My resume has a summary at the top (with 4 bullet points), and I show the details of experience, skills, education. Senior executives must never write their own resumes, judging by the phrases that litter their emails: #8220;.. drive more linkage among our priorities across all functions#8221;, #8220;Innovating in essays, a more organized fashion.#8221;, #8220;.. on extended a go-forward basis#8221;. Great article!

I think most people resort to these phrases when they don#8217;t really have much to put on a resume to begin with (someone with not a whole lot of work experience), but if you really have something to put on it yeah you should never generalize it or anything -details details details! So, what if you aren#8217;t given the data to quantify? I#8217;ve worked in teams of 20-40 and I honestly don#8217;t know what my contribution netted, let alone a percentage, a dollar value or time saved. I know that I completed the work presented to me, and my work was favorably reviewed. For example, I worked on a command and control system for a space agency. I don#8217;t know if we shaved any time off the persuasive essays, development, whether it was any more efficient than the prior system#8230; heck, I don#8217;t even know what the chapter 4 of research paper, previous budget versus our budget was.

All I know is essays 4th grade, that my work was on time (sliding time scale based on various variable milestones) and favorably reviewed (it worked too, but that is especially hard to quantify). How do I quantify these? Overall this is good advice but if you say that you increased sales by what is your approach to life essay 15% you better be able to prove it. Don#8217;t just make up some number, don#8217;t exaggerate, and most of all don#8217;t lie. If you are caught in a lie, your not getting the job. I thought those were the #8220;buzzwords#8221;! Oh well, time to un-become a responsible, experienceed, software developer with good communications skills who is also a team player, detailed oriented and essays 4th grade, successful.

I think you left out #8220;working knowledge#8221; what does that mean, you barely know enough to work? At some point in your carreer don#8217;t you have better things to do than send a resume to research example a hiring manager ? isn#8217;t #8220;word of mouth#8221;, networking a much better way to get a job ? It is always better to list accomplishments rather than what you think of persuasive, yourself. I can add a word: #8220;I know#8221;, which is somehow similar to experience in. Eg. : I know/Knowledge in Java, C++, etc#8230; Better: Participated in tech questions, the development of a robust Java application connecting to real time servers and getting stock quotes. You get the point. PS: For those applying to be project managers, I have published an excellent list of project management interview questions, check it, most of the interview questions nowadays can be found in this list. I agree resumes shouldn#8217;t be vague, but in my job searches I#8217;ve noticed that most employers fail at persuasive essays 4th grade job description writing. Cliched, nebulous catchphrases galore. I tailor my cover-letter and resume for each place I send it, and is your approach, part of that includes using some of the persuasive 4th grade, same vocabulary they do when they describe what they#8217;re looking for. Term. I really, really hate the phrase #8220;team player#8221; (and I personally haven#8217;t used it yet), but depending on essays 4th grade the audience I think it would be appropriate to include it along with something concrete about it. (It can be an studies essays interesting exercise to try to figure out what they actually mean by something like #8220;team player.#8221; Do they mean #8220;obeys boss without arguing#8221;?

Maybe #8220;cares about the good of the essays 4th grade, company#8221; or #8220;won#8217;t spend all day browsing the Internet for personal reasons#8221;? Or perhaps #8220;gives clients a good feeling about the company over the phone#8221;? It may have nothing to do with working with groups.) For writing I#8217;ve been told #8220;show, don#8217;t tell,#8221; but I#8217;ve realized that good writing usually shows AND tells. Quite an unprofessional way to impart good information. Your points are well taken just a little appalled at your use of words. Essays Buy. Maybe you go so many comments because the essays, terminology used was as if two teenagers were behind a building smoking cigarettes during class time. Sucky. Thank you for publishing this article. I edited my resume as I read through the information. I must have done something right as I only used three of the #8220;no no#8221; words/phrases. I now have a better resume to send out and I will take the tech questions, updated version with me to an interview.

Excellent points essentially, you have to show people who you are, not just tell them. You also hit Lifehacker! Thanks for highlighting these common mistakes! I agree with other commenters, though, that if you#8217;re going to include a separate summary of skills along with your itemized work experience, it makes sense to use more general language in that tiny section. (By the way, re: capitalizing FORTUNE, that#8217;s really just type styling for the cover. The publisher calls it _Fortune Magazine_ #8212; see page titles, subscribe-to links, c. Essays. Personally I wouldn#8217;t consider it #8220;wrong#8221; either way.) @Mike Yep. Over the georgia tech questions, span of 24 hours this post hit the front pages of Digg, Delicious, and Lifehacker. It#8217;s a mystery to me.

Having recruited for a dozen years, one of my pet peeves is the phrase #8220;Involved in#8230;.#8221; Similar to persuasive your previously noted #8220;Responsible for#8230;#8221; (which I actually like!) in rationale, #8220;Involved in#8221; is just so namby pamby, and example, noncommittally vague. Honestly, I only persuasive essays read a few comments, so I#8217;m not sure if this was answered, but *Azurith* pretty much wrote what I want to! My resume is fully guilty of..hmm#8230;4 of the 6 #8220;sucky words/ phrases#8221;.. but thing is, I#8217;ve only worked in 1 terribly generic entry-level job#8230;then I did my BSc., and now I#8217;m job searching again, while on contract at another administrative job#8230; so, how can I really make my resume unsucky#8230; Hmm, maybe: #8220;Efficiently answered all telephone calls that came in and routed them#8230;#8221;#8230;but still, that is to chapter 4 of research paper example make someone hire me? Please help though..I need a job..and the state of the economy is not helping! How to sound like yet another slave. Why does everyone want to work so hard at being yet another pointless slave? Yes you get the job. 4th Grade. Woopdy f#038;^%ing do. Start your own business. Stop trying to please the man like a little bit$h.

It#8217;s so pathetic. Of course the essays buy, problem with heeding the advice in this column is if you don#8217;t have any valid examples to back up your experience. For example, I can say I am responsible for #8220;writing user guidelines on deadline,#8221; but if I have not done anything great like writing #8220;six user guides for 15,000 users two weeks before deadline,#8221; I can#8217;t very well say I did. What if I only wrote one user guide for 2 people? That#8217;s not quite as impressive, therefore I will only say that I am responsible for writing the guidelines and persuasive essays 4th grade, not be more specific. @CK What type of guides? Which users? What product or service? Who benefited? Any user feedback?

How much time did the users save by learning from your guide? Who did you help? What did you learn from writing the guide? Pick up any new skills? New technologies? What groups did you work with? (My list of possible quantitative elements can go on.) My point is, there is more to you than just #8220;wrote user guidelines on deadline.#8221; #128578; Congrats Mort on is your approach to life essay disagreeing with Squawk and#8230; then saying nothing in persuasive, your post. Essays Buy. You proved her right with your proof that you#8217;re right.

I don#8217;t quite agree with Squawk either, altho#8217; I dearly love her (she saved my life after a motorcycle crash by essays feeding me strawberries and cream). One can#8217;t always be concrete on a resume because#8230; the truth sometimes hurts: lack of experience, lack of concrete details that you want this employer to know, lack of wanting your details to BE concrete and out there for people to read. So my resume is film extended, a combo of sucky and essays, socky (sock-it-to-me) Some times its better to use those SUCK words , because it gives some abstract higher level impression. What we expect from a cv is to project some good impression to questions the employer. 4th Grade. Only the employer needs more details. So if we can give a good expression from essay, a cv , at the time of the essays 4th grade, interview we might stand to chance. Georgia. So i believe this post is persuasive essays, not good for the people who seeks jobs.

Thanks so much for the post! I went through my resume as I read and made some changes.. Grade Essays. Very fun post about resumes and essays, the sucky words#8230; couldn#8217;t agree more#8230; Check out 4 of paper example another humorous paper that hits home with resume writing: http://devonjames.com/write_resume.html called #8220;How to Write a Resume that Truly Portrays Your Business Strengths While Saving Time and persuasive, Deoderant on paper an Interview#8221;#8230; Kinda long title but funny. I think the worst statement I#8217;ve seen on a CV (regrettably, under the persuasive essays, #8220;Responsibilities#8221; section) was from a developer who proudly claimed he was resonsible for #8220;Developing and implementing bugs#8221;. Admittedly his first language was not English, but I still suspect it was probably the most honest thing on his CV#8230; I agree that these phrases suck, but as with most resume tips I wonder what you#8217;re supposed to write if you#8217;re not a superhero who single-handedly increased sales by 30%, made the entire customer service department obsolete, and cut production costs by film studies 15%? There#8217;s a generic way to think about writing one#8217;s resume: Focus on the achievements, and reviewers would infer the persuasive essays 4th grade, candidate#8217;s qualities on their own. What applicants usually end up doing is writing down the qualities using these sucky phrases without any substantiation.

And that doesn#8217;t cut ice with many reviewers. haha#8230; I love your article. My uncle taught me how to write a good techinal resume a few years ago. Studies Extended. These are the persuasive, exact things he showed me. I#8217;ve been told twice in the two jobs that I#8217;ve started in the past 4 years that my resume sold me. They just wanted me to come in to the interview so they could see I was real. Whoa, thanks! I will take #8220;responsible for#8221; off my resume right now and what approach to life, replace it with what I actually do and have done.

What an easy fix! Thank you for making this public, as this is 4th grade, a major issue that affects a lot of workers. I may turn this into a post of my own just to spread the word, as this is something that EVERYONE should read. Thanks again! Late to the game, but I enjoy your career posts.

Sometimes I think action verbs and essay, descriptions have to essays be sacrificed for tech essay questions brevity#8217;s sake. Things that are most relevant to the job should get the persuasive essays 4th grade, detail, of course. Liked your examples. I don#8217;t think you should burn at the stake, either, for throwing away less-than-stellar resumes. You can only hire one person for the job and if a resume catches your eye and proves that the person can do the job, then it makes sense to essays buy talk to them. If you#8217;ve got obviously qualified candidates, you don#8217;t need people you#8217;re unsure about. Persuasive. Hello. I#8217;m Canadian and now live in Britain. I find that the essays buy, resumes I receive in Britain are even worse than the ones above. I am not sure whether the British don#8217;t want to *brag* but I never see accomplishments in their resumes.

I#8217;ve been looking at resumes for some time and I always want to see what someone accomplished or initiated rather than what is obvious. In other words, great tips! Plus I think most north americans#8217; resumes could teach the persuasive essays 4th grade, British a thing or two. Add to georgia tech questions the list of bad/banned words these: #8220;References available on request#8221; I mean, of course you#8217;ll provide references it should go without saying that, if asked, you#8217;ll provide them. One final note: I always write my resumes in present, active tense. Drives some disinterested readers crazy but it#8217;s appeals to the interviewers I look to impress. My resume gets noticed and the interview always works out. Go figure. mazza aa gaya.It#8217;s amazing how beautifully we can manipulate words to essays 4th grade achieve our requirement.

I never thought they sucked until you pointed them out. Great work! I am an out-of-work writer who has more experience working as an Administrative Executive Assistant. I have a solidly written resume that gets me absolutely NO responses for admin positions. I am constantly told, #8220;Relax, go easy on yourself. Unemployment is higher than it has been in years. It#8217;s not your resume or you, it#8217;s a tough time to look for a job.#8221; All of that is true but doesn#8217;t change the paper example, fact that I need a job! Obviously all of the tips in your series are great for persuasive someone who has written handbooks and saved the what approach essay, company X dollars, etc. etc. But what about someone like me looking for an Administrative/Secretarial position? How does one make answering phones, filing, opening the exec#8217;s email and snail mail, scheduling meetings, planning travel, etc. sexy on a resume.

I should also mention that I don#8217;t have a degree beyond a high school diploma. I#8217;m starting to wonder if that is hindering me. I am going back to persuasive essays 4th grade school in the summer or fall, but that won#8217;t allow me to add a degree to my resume NOW. Please help. What Is Your Essay. I seriously need a job and I#8217;ve been actively looking for one for a solid 8 months now after being a freelance copywriter in the field of advertising for the past five years.

I need help. A lot of help. Again, while all your tips are great, they just don#8217;t apply to a resume for a job as an admin assistant and I refuse to lie on my resume. Heathermbanks@gmail.com if you want to email me. Any help from 4th grade, anyone who CAN help would be very appreciated! Sam Sweiti says.

The points listed in georgia tech questions, this article could have been put in a single recommendation: Use action verbs. I don#8217;t think there is a single rule but in reality the persuasive essays, best practice is to simply edit the resume according to the job you#8217;re about to what is your approach to life apply for. If you have the skills they need then you might as well mention them clearly. 4th Grade. I never enjoyed writing my resume. I always do a much better job when I#8217;m writing it for a friend.

That said, I#8217;d suggest if you#8217;re trying to write something for yourself you might as well consult a friend, a former co-worker or perhaps a family member. Kelly McPhee says. Let#8217;s add having your email address as a blue hyperlink in the print out of your resume to the bad column. Term Cover. It takes 2 seconds to mouse over your email address and take away the hyperlink and persuasive essays, really does make a difference! It seems like a lot of people think that it#8217;s the resume that gets you the job. If you#8217;re not using your networking contacts to film studies essays get an essays interview, the resume gets you the cover, interview and it#8217;s up to you to persuasive essays 4th grade back up what you put on your resume. I always think of the resume as the trailer to the movie and your interview as the term paper cover, feature film. If the essays 4th grade, trailer sucks or looks like something you#8217;ve seen a million times before, you#8217;re likely not going to see that movie; but if the trailer intrigues you and essays buy, draws you in, chances are you want to go see the movie in theatres. I am pretty sure that weak metaphors are a bad thing to put on your resume, too. Great post! Thanks for sharing.

Girl Japan says. I just found this post from Live Door News Japan #8212; first of essays, all #8220;excellent post#8221; I think I#8217;ll give my resume a polish. Film Essays. The person who translated into Japanese was by Miho Akutsu for Slow Media Work, she is a writer for #8220;All About#8221; as well. 4th Grade. Glad to have found your site. Tech Essay Questions. Helpful post. Thanks! Well, Jan is right. You could just summarize all this by #8220;Don#8217;t be vague about your experiences#8221;. Moreover, in essays, most of term paper cover, your exemples you incitate the candidate to detail his awesome realizations instead of being vague. But if he had no great successes on a specific point(which does not mean the candidate sucks#8230;) ? Is he obliged to lie ? Or is he obliged to use the sucking word you ban ? What is the alternative if you are experienced but not superman in a specific domain ? Great article! I#8217;ve been meaning to update my resume for a while#8230; this gives me a good excuse to essays do so. #128578; Is it bragging to what is your approach to life proudly say I don#8217;t have any of these in my resume?

I did a check just now, while I read the article and#8230; not a#8217; one of persuasive, these words was in essays buy, there! #128578; Actually, I have a resume question. I#8217;m applying for essays 4th grade theater jobs and internships I#8217;m graduating college in chapter 4 of research paper, just a few weeks, but my degree is not in theater. Persuasive. I have a little theater experience during my college career (one big job), but my main experience is from high school. Should I include that experience on my resume, even though it#8217;s from high school? got it basically don#8217;t be vague. on the flip side of the coin i think you should give examples of when being too specific isn#8217;t good as well. Melanie Reformed Spender says. Fox, where are you? It#8217;s been too long since I#8217;ve had a post to read from you. I miss you! @Melanie I#8217;m here.

I#8217;m working on a crazy writing project which I can#8217;t spill the beans on yet. Essays. I miss you guys lots. I miss posting to the blog lots. (tears) I hope to talk about what I#8217;m up to sooooon. I promise to be back as Squawky as ever. Essays 4th Grade. I am so touched you miss me. #128578; Melanie Reformed Spender says. I suppose I can forgive you since it#8217;s for grade essays a writing project. My regular round of essays, PF blogs is good, but I like the Foxy flair. Good post, If you have any experience with big notable companies.. 4 Of Paper. do not be afraid to throw the name around, it will only 4th grade improve your self branding. Excellent article! Very insightful.

I reviewed my resume and I did pretty good. I had a lot of #8220;responsible fors#8221; which will be removed. I thinkt he reason so many resumes have thes words/phrases is questions, because they appear in many of the essays, job descriptions. So people think if I parrot their requirements on my resume I will look better to the hiring manager. I#8217;m a junior in college.

I have been preparing my resume for tech my graduation. We have a career services department at my college. I had one of the women look over persuasive 4th grade, my resume. Some of the corrections she made were adding these words to the resume. Maybe she should take a look at essays buy this site. Foxy! Your legions of persuasive essays, fans miss you#8230;. Man, you could be writing a book in cover, this time. Hope the project is persuasive essays, going well #128578; Dustin Klein says. Essays Buy. Great article, and very true.

The number one thing to remember when writing resumes has to be DETAILS. What an awesome series! Thanks for helping me punch up my resume. Interesting you are advising people to demonstrate they over estimate as a rule of persuasive essays 4th grade, thumb. Not sure that adds value to CVs. #8221; #8230; three months before deadline#8221; highlights poor estimating skills. There is a balance between bullish advertising and making yourself look like a grabbing budget player. At the georgia essay questions, end of the persuasive 4th grade, day even if one was given a lofty deadline by a client, professionalism should compel us all to tell them so and re-plan. I love this post. Thanks for the info.

I need to check my resume to make sure that I#8217;m doing things right. I am reading everywhere about computer systems that scan for key words. Many of these terms you veto are #8216;key words#8217; that are in second grade, the job advertisements. Wouldn#8217;t getting rid of these terms hinder your resume because of essays 4th grade, this? @Mary Scannable resume keywords are mostly found in these categories: * Degrees or Certifications. * University or College Names. * Software or Hardware Packages. I#8217;ve never searched a resume for is your the words #8220;responsible for#8221;. Seriously. #128521; Great article and content. I wonder your thoughts on brevity. Many of the persuasive 4th grade, examples you provided here have a longer string of words to replace the one #8216;sucky#8217; word#8230;. Studies Extended. I just got this link via Twitter, and have shared it with many already!

GREAT advice! I#8217;d like to add that using industry and job specific keywords when detailing your accomplishments, and tailoring your resume to the actual job posting will also help. Again, great tips, and I will be adding a link to this post for my clients. Love this article. I do have one more tip and/or something to essays keep in mind when editing your resumes:

although phrases such as #8220;detail-oriented#8221;, #8220;team player#8221;, and #8220;hard working#8221; are generic and cover, more often than not just FILLER words in persuasive, a resume, it#8217;s important to note that most companies don#8217;t have the resources to individually review resumes#8230;so they use software that scans resumes for keywords and only selects those which have a high percentage match of georgia tech, those specific keywords which directly affects those which fall onto the Hiring Manager#8217;s desk. So sometimes those filler words will get your resume into the right hands. And sometimes they just suck! It#8217;s important to tailor your resume to the specific job posting#8230; Great list of sucky words. I have two additions#8230; #8220;Synergy#8221; this word makes me want to spew. #8220;Proven track record#8221; if everyone read your article, they will understand why this is persuasive essays, a frustrating phrase. I also read recently that it is the most commonly used phrase on resumes.

Great list. I see resumes every day that have these mistakes and no factual backing. Term Paper Cover. I call them #8220;fluff resumes#8221; and persuasive, am sure that when I was looking for my first job had all the georgia tech, same mistakes in my own. Well it doesn#8217;t hurt or loose anything if you try to essays 4th grade keep up with this article. For me I think this is helpful insight but not absolute. Vacancies have a lot of elements -timing, personality, skills and more. UnFortuantly there is a very simple explination as to why So many resumees today have these #8216;sucky words or phrases#8217;. I was In highschool 4 years ago for essays buy a very #8216;important#8217; class Called Co-operative education, where they teach students how to persuasive 4th grade work with others, how to write resumees and how to successfully do an interview. They taught us 10 phrases to put on a resumee,the six Shown on this site were 6 of the georgia tech essay questions, 10. When i went for essays my interview, the employer said to me that everything i did was wrong, that typically she would not have hired me#8230; but she did because she had to. I have had resmuees out on potential employers desks with these 6 phrases on them for 5 years, and have never even gotten a call back, i knew something is wrong and this site is the extended, proof.

The only thing worse than #8220;detail oriented#8221; is #8220;detail orientated.#8221; That one makes my teeth hurt! I think if these are suck words then employers should not be writting them in persuasive essays 4th grade, the job description either. So many companies are looking for term paper cover #8220;team players#8221; and #8220;detail oriented people#8221; that it#8217;s no wonder people put those words in their resume. THEY WANT THE JOB! My two cents#8230;. I#8217;m just about to write a CV (resume) to apply for an internship in essays, New York (I#8217;m from chapter research paper example, Manchester, UK) and persuasive, had no clue where to start and how to chapter 4 of make myself stand out from all the other aplicants#8230; All the information provided above is excellent! I really feel inspired and hopefully will at least get an interview now with my new CV.

Please understand that I went to school when teachers required us to use words carefully and appropriately. Use of #8220;suck#8221; in your title demeans your hard work. Suck is not a professional word and essays 4th grade, has no place in film studies extended essays, any publication for adults. Persuasive. I believe you used it to get attention and to 4 of research paper example make a point about persuasive essays 4th grade, using words that don#8217;t advance your cause. But when I read anything with suck in the title, I just shut down and turn off.

How did this word become such a throw-away, such an easy stand in for what approach essay so many other words? I say that we take the more difficult road and say what we mean. In this case, you mean words that deter HR representatives and prospective employers from taking your resume seriously. You can consult a thesaurus or dictionary. I think that #8220;inappropriate#8221; would be a much better choice, especially if some of us older folk are reading your customers#8217; resumes. Very HELPFULLLL, I#8217;ll try to essays fix up my resume.

I think it contains many sucks cause I used a some bad words#8230; and all that I can say is. I love this advice. Grade Essays. We advise against the use of words like this and I think it really matters. Nice blog #128578; Amanda Higgins says. I couldn#8217;t agree more with this blog. Persuasive 4th Grade. I#8217;m a hiring manager and second, run a job search support group and I see hundreds of resumes that just don#8217;t say enough to persuasive essays 4th grade me. I want tangible descriptions of what you#8217;ve done and second grade essays, how it was successful.

I have a problem. Show me you are the solution. I agree with some of the posts that you do need a summary or headlines that quickly define your professional profile, but then get to persuasive essays 4th grade the action. Good advice that I will pass on to my group. If you have little or no experience one thing you could say is, #8220;Recently graduated from (name college) seeking first job with fresh open mind to tailor work routines to fit (Company#8217;s) procedures.#8221; Recently graduated from University of Utah with an Associate Degree of Paralegal Studies, seeking first job with fresh open mind to tailor work routines to fit Bittle and Bitterman#8217;s procedures. Remind the employer that with an inexperience comes the prospect of training you the way he wants you to work. No bad habits to undo. Get the point.

I#8217;m sure someone can come up with a better way of saying it but this get#8217;s the what to life essay, ball rolling. I would like to share that some MNC uses a system to generate resumes based on some of the keywords meant for the position advertised. This saves time for processing which equals cost-saving. Persuasive 4th Grade. You never know, that it#8217;s the system that is generating the conclusion, even though you thought you might have did your best and the top-notch for second that job. Nice article indeed. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade. #3,4,5 often appear in job descriptions and I assume are key words used for electronic scanning of resumes. Yes, some of them are in approach to life, my resume and will stay there. I#8217;m having enough trouble getting responses from my resumes and I don#8217;t want to make it harder by eliminating key words from them. Too bad this author hasn#8217;t realized that #8220;you#8217;ve got#8221; sucks, too. some i agree with some i don#8217;t.

but i guess every opionion is at least worth a read in these hard economic times. I think this article makes a great point but not all careers can be measured in numbers like most of the good examples. I don#8217;t think I have a single example where I reduced x by 15% or increased revenue by 10% over persuasive, 3 months#8230;etc. Paper Cover. but I am good at what I do. Besides, does this really mean anything to anyone? I don#8217;t know the essays, answer here but for some careers I think replacing vague buzz words with BS numbers and paper cover, statistics isn#8217;t much better. Thoughts? Thanks, very helpful. Persuasive Essays. Well I agree that language is stupid, but I take great exception with: #8220;Hiring managers can identify sucky words in tech essay, seconds, leaving your resume work worthless.#8221; What planet are you from? Hiring Managers invented these sucky phrases they are on every job ad that#8217;s why they appear on persuasive essays 4th grade people#8217;s resumes. People don#8217;t talk in essays buy, stupid, bureaucratic phrases by nature, they learn to persuasive do so in trying to work the grade essays, system now the essays 4th grade, system is telling them not to? I originally PAID to have a professional resume written.

Guess what term they used all throughout my resume? You guessed it #8220;Responsible for#8230;#8221; Now that really sucks! For those who think that words like #8220;Responsible for#8221; or #8220;detail-oriented#8221; are keywords: try to understand that not all words in job description are #8220;keywords#8221;. They merely state that they need someone responsible for such and such tasks. Chapter Example. They don#8217;t want to 4th grade see them in your resume. Unless you want to look like absent-minded profane. #8220;Keywords#8221; are technical words, or words specific to the industry.

Don#8217;t #8220;copy#8221; job descriptions blindly yes it#8217;s less work, but it makes your resume useless. Just what I needed! and yes my res was guilty of chapter research example, all 6 of your sucky words. Persuasive. It is too bad that rtard HR people screen resumes, but that is the way it is. Thanks again, this helped me! I disagree with pretty much every single thing wrote here.

These are things that are considered almost mandatory by almost every single employer I know and even things I require when I look at grade resumes. I don#8217;t care about explicit facts, they take up too much room. 4th Grade. I want brief descriptions and we#8217;ll cover the rest in an interview. I#8217;ve got the #8220;qualify and quantify#8221; pat under my word history, but I have some of extended, those things in my #8220;Objective#8221; paragraph at the top. Is that just as bad? Is my objective opener a dim witted dinosaur? Thanks, some of persuasive essays 4th grade, these helped me. The advice is sound, even if the second grade essays, examples aren#8217;t always very creative (almost all referenced a numerical stat to essays prove value, the studies essays, absolute easiest scenario!). Plus, saying you worked within a diverse group of persuasive essays, people #8220;to deliver financial reporting software three months before deadline#8221; doesn#8217;t even suggest your team dynamics are a strength.

You may have accomplished that in spite of you being a poor team player, meaning something else unmentioned is the actual strength. These things can all be very hard (or impossible) to do when you don#8217;t have an easy out and chapter research paper, you#8217;re intent on doing them correctly. Persuasive. Having said that, you being so specific in your article is part of 4 of example, what made it more useful than most, as well as more open to criticism, so kudos! How about this one#8230; As opposed to . a dog person? cat person? The above statement is often seen on resumes for Human Resources or other service oriented jobs. Persuasive Essays. Don#8217;t tell me you are one demonstrate it instead! @Steve Now that#8217;s a good one. You gave me a good laugh. #128578; I like every thing you have mentioned. I have seen so many resumes with #8220;who cares#8221; type words! However, I think everyone should write their resume appropriate to the position they are applying for.

Some resumes need to be detailed and others need to be very brief. If I am applying for a job to be a manager i will definitely put in cover, more information. If i am applying for a server job at a restaurant, I would hope I dont have to explain too much. It all is dynamic to the position one is applying to. These aren#8217;t really words but phrases. Just wanted to say, it#8217;s all good really. Very helpful, I just got a better idea on how to persuasive essays sell mey skills being more specific, providing numbers, percentages costs#8230; etc etc rather than just saying, I contributed to company#8217;s costs reduction by reducing man power, down times and material expenses. Thanks for these very helpful tips!#8230; I have been applying for administrative jobs for months, but I have only interviewed once. I am qualified for these positions, though I need to add more quantitative evidence to my resume. My question for FOX is, should I change my name?

It is Tamsi#8230; and I think there is questions, a chance it is holding me back. Your Mother says. this is helpful. A phrase like reduced customer support calls can be misleading. Persuasive. How did you do it? Reduced support staff. Film. Implemented and massive confusing phone menu system that customers hung up on. Or even made it so bad they didn#8217;t bother ever to persuasive phone again. I want to make it clear that this is term paper, neither a comment on the usefulness of the post nor it is a personal vendetta against any of persuasive, you out there who have contributed to the quality discussion of course including the blogger. Yes, it is a justified rant.

My honest opinion is an second grade outcome of experiences over many years of the persuasive 4th grade, so called HR industry which has become inefficient and fussy. It has become a machine with almost zero tolerance in terms of the input that it can process. It is 4 of example, so limited by its narrow compatibility with the human reality. Essays. Where is the H in the HR? [#8220;#8230;oh it was right there yesterday..god knows where is it now..huh! right they are loaded with work, isn#8217;t that good? right, you work at work, that#8217;s work!, that#8217;s how it works, but does it really work?#8221;] Listen up, you are not sitting there to get impressed by the stuff (resumes) that you read (. ). You are there to find a right match for the job. That#8217;s it! Somebody teach that wisdom to those thoughless recruiters?? If they choose to term cover use some of that H in the HR, they#8217;d always remember that people are looking for jobs! and that most of them are probably desperate! The industry, always, starts a new trend/fad it wants jobseekers to follow so that you can sit on essays 4th grade its seats comfortably and not get bored by the so called sucky words. Term Paper. Well, eventually to jobseekers#8217; misfortune, you get bored:) That simply means that you are not enjoying your work!:) isn#8217;t it?:) What#8217;s the persuasive essays, whole deal about is your to life, #8216;if you cannot sell yourself well, you probably won#8217;t sell the essays 4th grade, org either#8217;? Come on.. Second Grade Essays. throw away your inertia.

Don#8217;t sloth yourselves. Analyse! Understand! Yours is persuasive essays, not the place to behave like audiences of entertainment shows! Do the damn job! If you have no spheres to accept greater responsibility for paper cover the industry that you are working within, then you quit!

Words are words. Unfortunately they do not match telepathic perfection. They are USED to persuasive essays communicate. That#8217;s the ONLY purpose. And HR industry is supposed to practice the research example, art of subtle magic, to essays 4th grade be the cover, instrument of change for organisations not to 4th grade change the film extended, bloody trends (. ). Jobseekers are not there to scratch your ego or please your senses. When irritation starts riding your sense of judgement, it#8217;s time for reflection. Don#8217;t give them jobseekers reasons to 4th grade wonder why the HR industry is thriving all over the globe. Paper. Surely, if it did its job well, right people would find right jobs, right companies would find right candidates and persuasive, one word #8216;stability#8217; would replace the whole HR conspiracy theory. But so far a fat fussy spoilt bored brat throwing a fit rules the sad reality.

Best advise I have came across on film extended essays the use of key words #8212; the essays, examples are great#8230; #8230;reworking on my CV and chapter 4 of research paper, Cover Letters. Thank you for persuasive essays 4th grade the information. I#8217;ve read all this article and learned a lot. But this topic about words or phrases that suck is a little contradictory as many of those words are actually listed in the job descriptions and are keywords.

Words like: Experienced, Excellent communication skills, detail oriented, a team player, etc. are very common in job descriptions for restaurant servers for instance. Do you recommend to avoid those words in essays buy, all cases? Thank you again for your information. This isn#8217;t really useful to me since I#8217;ve never had a job before, so I have to be vague about what I did. Persuasive. Giving away that I have no experience is worse than being unclear. So what do you do when what you were #8220;responsible for#8221; doesn#8217;t lend itself to paper numerical results?

I#8217;m in the legal profession and while the number of essays, cases won might suffice, that#8217;s far from the kind of description of questions, skills and persuasive, results employers are looking to to life essay receive. Prepared 37 cases for litigation at once? Drafted 42 demand letters in one day? I really like the post, but finding it hard to essays 4th grade use in studies extended essays, my particular profession. Totally agree that these terms are meaningless on resumes, but what about in 4th grade, job postings by companies? Can you make another post entitled #8220;6 words that make your job description suck#8221;? I keep hearing that you need to georgia essay quantify your resume. However, I am in marketing, not sales and essays, have no access to the numbers.

They usually say marketing has no ROI, so how do I get around that? Colleges need to instruct students about writing useful resumes. Research Paper. I#8217;m still underemployed. How can I erase dead-end jobs I#8217;ve had to accept in hard times? Since I#8217;ve graduated I#8217;ve been unable to get meaningful experience. Internships don#8217;t always provide the experience you need in the field you want to work in. My love for 4th grade my career has made me think about other avenues. I never worked in second essays, sales or had to beat deadlines in a business environment. Oh, well!

I don#8217;t know#8230;in IT one common and useful type of hybrid resume includes a short Skills section followed by a more detailed chronological Experience section under which you include highlights and accomplishments. I think it#8217;s unnecessary to turn your skills section into a redundant experience section if the those skills are validated by specific accomplishments in 4th grade, the other section. You have made some interesting points. I find that I am inclined to bang my head against the desk at this point. I am now concerned with how many mistakes may be found in the cover letters and what approach, resumes that have left my mailbox for points across Ohio. Persuasive. Thank you for a taking the time to is your approach to life essay put this together. Best part I now have something to do with the four hours I usually sleep! Seriously though, thank you. Great tips, as valid today as when they were written.

Possibly more so with so many resumes out there on the market. Have a small bone to pick with #4 though from 4th grade, a recruiting standpoint, it#8217;s good for second essays your audience to know that yes, you#8217;re a great team player, but if you#8217;ve also worked solo on projects, say that as well. Essays. Anything mentioning #8220;team performance#8221; needs to emphasize *your* role on the team. Great post, though. Film Studies Extended Essays. I found most of these mistakes in 4th grade, my first heading #8220;Qualifications#8221;, but the rest is grade essays, full of quality details! Wow, I#8217;m guessing many recruiters didn#8217;t read the persuasive essays, real stuff#8230; The advice in this article is fine if you#8217;re looking for paper a sales job, but what about regular jobs that are just ordinary such as waitress, barista, receptionist, day are worker, CNA, custodial#8230;the jobs MOST new non-college grad jobseekers are looking for?

You can#8217;t measure those kinds of jobs by percentages. Vanessa Naylon says. #8220;Spearheaded#8221; would be my #7. I#8217;ve heard the exact opposite persuasive 4th grade, of this. I just graduated from College 2 years ago and I am still seeking work, so perhaps my professor is grade essays, wrong, and I need to change things, but I was told that professionals still have very busy schedules to keep and that hiring someone is usually just thrown on top of those duties. Therefore, the first thing they will often look at is how wordy the persuasive essays 4th grade, resume is, and chapter paper, throw it out based on that. Writing #8220;Short and Sweet#8221; was always what I was told. #8220;Tell them what they need to know in as little words as possible. Essays. No fleshing out the english and being proper. Builtpoints, lists, and 1-4 word sentences are a resume-readers favorite things. Now I know this was written a few years ago, so have things changed again, or am I being taught wrongly?

The only difficulty with applying this advice today (3 years after it was written) is essays buy, that a lot of essays 4th grade, organizations that collect resumes through an online portal use computer programs to tech sift through the first cut of resumes. In my experience, a number of the persuasive, #8220;sucky#8221; words/phrases are often precisely what that first-cut computer is grade, looking for (in some cases one gets the best results by nearly repeating the qualifications listed in the job ad). Essays 4th Grade. Very aggravating, to be honest. When I worked in retail probably 95% of all the second, resumes came through me, and persuasive 4th grade, I could share some horror stories (one kid came in with their mom and second grade, she filled out the application form for him). But one of the persuasive, worst was a guy who came in with a three page resume (it was a slow day so I did read it), that had nothing to do with the job he was applying for (or any other in the store) and was so obnoxiously rude to me it wasn#8217;t even funny. Chapter 4 Of Research. So while I agree with the merits of this article, it means nothing if what you put on your resume isn#8217;t relevant. And it doesn#8217;t hurt to be nice to the person you#8217;re giving it too either. (The way I see it, if you#8217;re rude to them, you#8217;re not going to be polite to 4th grade the customers, now are you?) Enjoyed this post.

Just ran a search on my CV for film studies extended all of those 6 terms and was quite pleased that I#8217;ve used none of essays 4th grade, them! Something I learned a few Years ago has always kept me in good stead: F.A.B = Feature, Analyse, Benefit. For example if you are a Team Manager, that is the feature. So #8216;analyse#8217; it#8230;.. Team Manager of term paper, how many people, what did you do to support those people, etc. What was the #8216;benefit to those people and to the company?

So, #8216;Team Manager#8217; suddenly becomes: Effective Management, Coaching and essays 4th grade, Development of a 12 member team ensuring demanding national sales/service targets and term, business objectives are achieved whilst delivering an 8% Year on Year increase in 4th grade, turnover. I just made that up in what is your to life, around 10 seconds#8230;.but if you think about it and apply it to your situation you could probably come up with something better, whilst being factual. Loved the article! I have written and read several articles on what to avoid or what to include in a resume. Your straight forward approach gets the job done. You made me giggle to myself as I read through your examples. I see them so often and they just make me shake my head.

Thank you for the blunt and entertaining method. Thank you for the information. I’ve read all this article and learned a lot. But this topic about 4th grade, words or phrases that suck is a little contradictory as many of those words are actually listed in chapter research paper, the job descriptions#8230;#8230;Colleges should also teach the students about how to write resumes#8230;.Otherwise a well written blog#8230;. Excellent post.

Quantifying your results via numbers, percentages, or awards, is an excellent strategy to use to ensure your resume is effective. 4th Grade. In addition, only include information which is relevant and recent (within the past 10-15 years) to avoid age discrimination. Great advice! Drew Roark, CPRW. I#8217;m starting to is your think that half of the essays, posters on what is your essay here are mediocre workers who have no accomplishments to list because they haven#8217;t strived for more than the bare minimum. If this isn#8217;t the case, one should be led to persuasive 4th grade believe that they could find a way to quantify their experience and not necessarily in terms of numbers. On a side note, I#8217;ve also come to the realization that applications and resumes aren#8217;t a one-road route. It varies by industry and employer. Everything from a large corporation to an entrepreneur looking for essays buy their next investment consider different resume approaches appropriate or desirable. Jack Matov says.

Um, how exactly are you going to quantify without numbers? #8220;A lot#8221;, #8220;a little#8221;, #8220;some#8221;, #8220;very few#8221;, #8220;not very many#8221;. Persuasive. Not much of a quantification. I have tried both these styles. I can honestly say I saw no difference in outcome. Essays. It is almost impossible to persuasive quantify a secretarial or reception job. Tech Essay Questions. But you can give examples of unique responsibilities you were given, or new skills you acquired.

I currently tailor my resume to the job description, but if you are attempting to persuasive 4th grade apply for several positions in one company via an georgia online tool, that is impossible, so it becomes generic. Persuasive 4th Grade. My last employer has cut almost 2000 positions from a 6000 strong work force. I was laid off, rehired within a month, laid off the following year. My co worker had a BA and was working as a receptionist, and had been averaging 3 applications a month for term paper 4 years. It seems it is no longer what you know but who you know. For example, for three jobs I sent applications for persuasive 4th grade there were 55, 69 and chapter paper, 93 acceptable applications passed to persuasive the search committees. Two I did not get interviews for. Unfortunately this company also has a rule that the committee must interview 4 applicants, but most of the positions are already taken by the interim worker. The third is my best hope, as I have a friend who has spoken to the manager for me.

That particular manager is old school, and will probably be looking for the buzz words. Chapter. I also have glowing written references from previous employers, but as most applications are placed online, I have no way of submitting them, so I usually fall back on the #8221; written references available upon request#8221; line but have yet to be asked for them. Excellent article! So many of us who are over 50 and in the habit of writing resumes using these words have had a hard time rewording these phrases. Your article really help me see in back and while how I could better present and sell myself in my resume! Thank You! Edward Dickinson says. the persuasive, most important thing is to explain what you done.

This will set you apart. when you take your ownership. If you want to say you helped in some way give an example of what you did to enable the benefit to the company or others in making it transpire. just saying: helped 5 people is too bland. you have to show them and explain. Remember you only have seconds to get the research example, employers attention. the power statements have to flow and the words have to be in 4th grade, away that entices the employer to interview you or hire you on the spot. follow this frame work#8212; what you done , then what was the issue that needed to essays buy be resolved, then finally what was the benefit to the companies and persuasive essays 4th grade, others were when providing the solution if any. The employer would ask you such things in an interview as well but they want what results you have provided. Numbers, percentages, and comparisons. In doing so you position yourself to grade the employer as if in a way that says this is what i have done and this is essays, what i can do and this is what the results are to become even better if you hire me. if you want what i can only provide then lets come to tech essay the table and get this contract done for an agreement to work together. Persuasive Essays. There are words that say you done something but you want to tech show them in your words from the field your in when explaining. of I helped contributed assisted results. these are just as bad. because powerstatements are taking ownership of results. purpose is to persuasive essays show when explaining how you did the things you have done in a concise way. Qualified new projects to second grade essays sensitive behavioral indicators for tightening inadequate queries and in researching enriched efficiency from persuasive essays 4th grade, 50% to 80%. Essays Buy. don#8217;t mean to tease any one here with this and persuasive essays 4th grade, wanting to know more about what results i get for companies. 4 Of Research Paper Example. This is essays 4th grade, how it is always been done and what approach essay, it is to get to where your trying to go and persuasive, that#8217;s to get the essay questions, job.

Everyone wants to persuasive be successful and get the position they desire to settle down with in life. Following up is the another way to say i was there then and you needed more time for the answers i always had that i can provide now when you hire me. Grade Essays. Just showing the employer you are a one of a kind person is persuasive, un avoidable. Jennifer Robledo says. Research Paper Example. My resume had all of these words all of your #8220;Bad#8221; examples. Wow#8230;what you explained to us was beyond valuable. I think we each should take you out for lunch when we land that job because without your tips we would have never been selected to interview for the positions! THANKS! #7 References Available Upon Request.

Really. We thought you#8217;d say no if we asked for persuasive them. Smh#8230; Thank You very much, good! #128578; Bilbo Baggins says. I disagree. Detail oriented (sans hyphen) works just fine, unless you are anally retentive. Current grammar style says to not hyphenate when it#8217;s obvious and only include it when it#8217;s necessary.

The basic rule I follow as an Editor-in-Chief of a tech pub is second essays, this: Use the least amount of persuasive essays, ink possible. So if you must use certain punctuation marks to clarify, do; otherwise, don#8217;t waste the what is your essay, ink. Essays 4th Grade. Every extra nonvalue added mark (case in point) just adds clutter and one more thing that the eyes and brain have to second process, and persuasive, if it doesn#8217;t add value because the meaning is chapter example, already clear, there is no need for it. 5 Steps to open a Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP) 6 Ways an interest rate hike affects your finances. Kerry speaks and essays 4th grade, writes personal finance.

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CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AND HUMAN RIGHTS. Criminal justice System of any country is the essays, basis of establishing, Peace and tranquility, includes not only the judicial system but investigating machinery also. To tame the over flooding of crimes a strong criminal justice system is required. Administration of justice through the instrumentality of law is an essential component of governance. Rule of law is the bedrock of second grade, democracy, which is 4th grade, acknowledged as the best system of governance to ensure respect for human rights. The dignity and worth of the individual being at the core of a democracy, constitutional governance in a democratic set up is the georgia tech essay questions, safest guarantee for the protection of human rights and essays, assurance of human resource development. Equal respect for essays the rights of all sections of the society is necessary to obtain full human resource development respecting the basic human right of non-discrimination.

The concept of persuasive essays 4th grade, inclusive democracy recognizes this aspect. Key Words: Criminal Justice System, Democracy, Judiciary, Non-Discrimination Human Rights. The Criminal Justice System has the power to control crime, prevent crime and punish the criminals. Pre-trial procedure involves arrest and Investigation under the film studies essays, Criminal Procedure Code 1973. Criminal Justice System is composed mainly three vital organs, namely (i) Police, (ii) Judiciary and (iii) Prison. Arrest means physical restraint put on a person as a result of allegation of accusation that he has committed a crime or an offence of quasi-criminal nature1.

Sec.41 (1) of the criminal procedure code confined only to persuasive the power to arrest and extends to both cognizable and non-cognisable offences; without the order of a competent magistrate under S.155 (2) of Cr.P.C2. The Code of Criminal Procedure contemplates two types of arrests. (i) Arrest made in pursuance of a warrant issued by a magistrate; and (ii) arrest made without such warrant but made in film studies extended accordance with some legal provision permitting such arrest. Sec. 46 of Cr.P.C. explains how arrest could be made. Any resistance or obstruction to lawful arrest has been made punishable U/s. 224,225,225-B of IPC. Art.22 (1) of the 4th grade, Indian Constitution- No person arrested shall be denied right to consult and to essays buy be defended by a legal practioner of his choice. Sec. 303 of Cr.P.C., Any person accused of an persuasive essays 4th grade, offence before a criminal court or against whom proceedings are instituted, may of right to be defended by a pleader of his choice. As the tech essay questions, police manage most of the pre-trial events, it is necessary to essays take a look at the Indian police system. Essays Buy? The Despatch of the persuasive, Court of Directors, dated September 24, 1856, gave a candid account of the working of the system: That the police in India have lamentably failed in accomplishing the ends for which it was established is a notorious fact, that it is all but useless for the prevention, and sadly inefficient for the detection of crime, is generally admitted.

Unable to check crime, it is, with rare exceptions, unscrupulous as to its mode of wielding the authority with which it is armed for the functions which it fails to essays buy fulfil and has a very general character for corruption and oppression3. The British, who had given Britain a new police system between 1829 and 1856, gave India the Police Act, 1861, and the Criminal Procedure Code, 1861.The Indian Evidence Act came a little later. Essays? These three acts gave India the present police system. Efforts were made later at the provincial level to review and reform the system. A major effort was, however, made at term, the central level to reform the system when Curzon appointed the Police Commission, 1920. The Commission studied the work of police stations and said: There can be no doubt that the police force throughout the country is in a most unsatisfactory condition, that abuses are common everywhere, that this involves great injury to the people and discredit to the government and that radical reforms are necessary4. Investigation is the exclusive dominion of police officer and he cannot be questioned by any authority. In India as has been shown, there is a statutory right on the part of the police to persuasive essays 4th grade investigate the circumstances of an alleged cognizable crime without requiring any authority from the judicial authorities. 5. ‘In the criminal justice system the investigation of an offence is the domain of the police.

The power to chapter 4 of research paper investigate into the cognizable offence by the police officers is ordinarily not impugned by any fetters. However, such power has to be exercised consistent with the statutory provisions and for legitimate purpose.’ 6. In D.K.Basu vs. State of West Bengal.,7The Apex court laid down 11, guidelines to be followed by police. (i).The police personnel carrying out the arrest and persuasive essays 4th grade, handling the interrogation of the arrestee should bear accurate, visible and what approach to life, clear identification and name togs with their designations.

The particulars of all such police personnel who handle interrogation of the arrestee must be recorded in essays 4th grade a register. (ii).Preparation of memo of arrest with the witness of a family member or local person; (iii).Right of the arrestee to have his relative or friend informed of is your, arrest as soon as practicable; (iv).The details of arrest to be informed within 8 to persuasive 4th grade 12 hours if the relative or friend of the arrestee lives outside the district or town of arrest; (v).The arrestee must be made aware of this right to have someone informed soon after arrest; (vi).Entry in the police diary about film studies essays, arrest and transmission of information to next friend or relative; (vii).In case arrestee requests for examination of his bodily injuries at the time of arrest, the request to persuasive 4th grade be complied with; (viii).Subjection of the film studies extended, arrestee to medical examination by a trained doctor every 48 hours during custodial detention; (ix).Copies of documents to be submitted to magistrate; (x).The arrestee may be permitted to meet his lawyer during interrogation, though not throughout the interrogation; (xi).Police control room in District or State headquarters to notify in the notice board about the fact of arrest within 12 hours from the essays, moment of arrest. 1. Indian constitutional Framework. The preamble the chapter research example, people of India has resolved to secure to essays all citizens the chapter research example, following four objectives:8Justice, social, economic and political; Liberty of essays 4th grade, thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; Equality of status and opportunity and to promote among them all and Fraternity assuring the dignity of the film, individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation. Indian criminal justice system has two primary responsibilities i.e, prevention and control of crime and the protection of rights. The most important factor in preventing and determining crime is the persuasive essays 4th grade, certainty of punishment; the efficiency with which who commits crime is arrested, prosecuted, convicted and punished. No constitutional guarantee of fundamental rights existed before or during the regime of Britishers over India. The Indian Constituent assembly after considerable deliberations incorporated a chapter on fundamental rights in the constitution of India. The Supreme Court of India has interpreted the Indian Constitution’s fundamental rights guarantees expansively.9The Constitution protects ‘equality before the law’ and ‘equal protection of the laws’ under provisions which embody a broad guarantee against arbitrary or irrational state action more generally.

Indian citizens are guaranteed the rights to speech and expression, peaceable assembly, association, free movement, and residence although Parliament may legislate ‘reasonable restrictions’ on some of these rights in the interests of the ‘sovereignty and integrity of India,’ ‘security of the state,’ or ‘public order.’ As discussed below, the Constitution also authorizes suspension of judicial enforcement of georgia, these rights during lawful, formally declared periods of emergency. The criminal justice context, the Constitution prohibits ex post facto laws, double jeopardy, and 4th grade, compelled self-incrimination. Individuals arrested and taken into custody must be provided the basis for arrest ‘as soon as may be’ and produced before a magistrate within 24 hours. In its landmark case of D.K. Basu v. State of West Bengal, the Supreme Court extended the Constitution’s procedural guarantees further by requiring the police to follow detailed guidelines for arrest and essays buy, interrogation10. 4th Grade? The Constitution also guarantees the right to 4 of paper counsel of the defendant’s choice, and the Supreme Court has held that legal assistance must be provided to indigent defendants at government expense, a right that attaches at persuasive 4th grade, the first appearance before a magistrate. These guarantees do not apply to essays buy laws authorizing preventive detention, which, as discussed below, the Constitution subjects to a more limited set of protections. While the Constitution does not explicitly protect ‘due process of law,’ it does prohibit deprivation of life or personal liberty from any person except according to ‘procedure established by law,’ and the Supreme Court has broadly interpreted this guarantee to encompass a range of procedural and substantive rights that approximate the concept of ‘due process.’11 Procedures must be ‘right, just and fair,’ and not arbitrary, fanciful or oppressive.12 The Court has held, based on its broad understanding of the persuasive 4th grade, right to life and liberty, that the Constitution guarantees the right to privacy13 and freedom from torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment14.The Court also has recognized a constitutional right to a fair criminal trial, including among other elements the presumption of innocence; independence, impartiality, and competence of the judge; adjudication at a convenient and non-prejudicial venue; knowledge by the accused of the accusations; trial of the accused and taking of evidence in georgia questions his or her presence; cross-examination of prosecution witnesses; and presentation of evidence in defense15.

The Constitution also requires a speedy trial, extending from the outset of an investigation through all stages of the criminal process16. Human Rights under Indian Constitution 17. The Indian Constitution shows that human rights have been classified under Indian Constitution into persuasive essays 4th grade the following categories: a) Fundamental Rights and Rights to freedom (Fundamental freedoms) b) Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, c) Human Rights for all and Human Rights for 4 of citizens only, d) Justifiable Human Rights and persuasive, Non-justifiable Human Rights. e) Enumerated Human Rights and Un-enumerated Human Rights. 2. Studies? Police and persuasive essays 4th grade, Criminal Justice System frame work. The legal and institutional framework that independent India inherited from the British to govern criminal law, criminal procedure, and policing largely remains in place today. Police matters are governed primarily by the Police Act of what to life, 1861, one of several framework statutes enacted in persuasive essays 4th grade the wake of the Indian uprising of 1857 to more firmly establish British control.

The 1861 statute self-consciously followed the paramilitary model of policing that the British had established in Ireland, structuring the police not to promote the essays buy, rule of law, serve the community, or ensure accountability, but rather to ‘perpetuate British rule.’ In doing so, the British incorporated the feudal values already present in Indian society, hiring into the police rank and file Indians perceived to be loyal and 4th grade, willing to acquiesce to the place of British leadership within the social hierarchy. Upon independence, the British ‘bequeathed’ to India and studies, Pakistan the laws, institutions, philosophy, and norms of the colonial police. The new government implemented no significant changes in policing, and essays, the police remained principally an instrument of coercive state power and political intelligence. The strength of the armed police continued to grow, reaching approximately 60 percent of essays buy, all forces by the late 1960s18. Despite reform proposals in the intervening years, the Police Act of 1861 continues to govern policing throughout India today19. In the police institutions of contemporary India, notes a former senior police officer, ‘the Raj lives on.’20. These colonial-era laws and institutions are now situated within a post-independence constitutional framework that distributes power between the essays 4th grade, central and state governments. Studies Extended Essays? While the essays, Indian Constitution establishes a strong central government, its role is particularly constrained in policing and criminal justice matters, over which the states enjoy broad authority and play the term, predominant day-to-day role. The Constitution grants the persuasive, central and state governments’ concurrent jurisdiction to enact substantive and procedural criminal laws, and authorizes the central government to legislate exclusively on matters involving national security and grade, the use of the military or central police forces to help state civilian authorities maintain public order.

At the same time, the Constitution leaves public order and police matters principally to the states, which accordingly regulate, supervise, and exercise highly centralized control over the majority of police resources in their day-to-day operations21. The central government nevertheless retains an persuasive 4th grade, active, if circumscribed, role in policing and public order. First, the central government maintains several police and paramilitary forces of georgia tech essay, its own, including the regular police forces of the seven so-called ‘union territories’ and the national capital territory of Delhi, which lack full autonomy from the central government. The central government also operates a number of police, investigative, and 4th grade, paramilitary services that have jurisdiction over specialized areas. Essays Buy? The Central Bureau of Investigation handles complex criminal investigations involving matters such as internal security, espionage, narcotics, and organized crime, particularly when such investigations concern matters of particular national importance or extend across interstate or international borders22. Several central paramilitary forces, with total force strength of over 685,000 individuals, may be deployed to help state police maintain order under appropriate circumstances23.

Ordinarily, these central forces may be deployed only at the request or with consent of the relevant state government, given the Constitution’s division of central and state powers, but the precise scope of the central government’s authority to deploy these forces has been controversial24. Second, while the regular domestic police services are subject to state government control, the most senior officers in 4th grade all police forces nationwide are drawn from the Indian Police Service, an ‘all-India’ civil service cadre whose members are recruited, organized, trained, and paper, disciplined by the Union Home Ministry25 IPS officers may be appointed at the rank of assistant superintendent of police or higher and may be assigned to positions with the state or central governments26.As of January 2005, just under 3,200 IPS officers were assigned to the senior ranks of the state police forces27. Third, the central government has constitutional authority to deploy the army ‘in aid of the civil [police] power.’28 This authority derives directly from powers granted under successive British colonial-era laws to deploy the army to maintain internal security29Pursuant to this authority, the persuasive essays, central government has enacted several laws conferring sweeping search, arrest, and preventive detention authority upon the armed forces, even authorizing them to shoot to kill suspected terrorists or insurgents, and has deployed the army to essays buy maintain order in particular moments of crisis. Finally, the persuasive 4th grade, central government has limited authority to investigate and enforce directly some criminal matters that otherwise fall within the essays buy, ambit of state authority, but may do so only under exceptional and highly constrained circumstances. The CBI may take over particular state criminal investigations, but ordinarily only at the request or with consent of a state government. As discussed below, in more extreme situations, if the central government exercises its emergency power to impose ‘President’s Rule’ in a particular state, then the 4th grade, entire state government becomes subject to essays central control30. The Constitution guarantees the independence of the judiciary, which is 4th grade, a unitary, integrated system with jurisdiction over both central and state law issues. Research? The independence and responsibility of the judiciary to interpret and enforce fundamental rights are considered ‘basic features’ of the Constitution that cannot be withdrawn even by constitutional amendment. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, twenty-one High Courts, and an extensive system of subordinate courts and tribunals which are subject to the broad supervisory jurisdiction of the High Courts. The states are divided into persuasive essays districts which consist of civil district courts and criminal sessions courts.

Judicial magistrates are authorized to adjudicate lesser criminal offenses, subject to oversight by the session’s courts, and have supervisory responsibility over police investigations and second grade essays, other pretrial matters. While the persuasive 4th grade, organization and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and High Courts are, within constitutional constraints, largely subject to film extended central government control, state governments share concurrent authority to 4th grade regulate the jurisdiction of grade, all courts other than the Supreme Court for areas in persuasive essays 4th grade which they have legislative authority. The Constitution confers both the Supreme Court and the High Courts with broad original jurisdiction to enforce fundamental rights through the filing of writ petitions. 3. Indian Judiciary ‘ Criminal justice system. The Judiciary has been assigned supervisory role, it cannot take over the investigation process31.The Constitution of India, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act and the Police Act.ets Important Statues for essay Criminal Justice System. For maintaining law and order and protection of liberty, criminal justice system operates through police, courts, prison and correctional system.

Illegal detentions, Custodial violence, torture, lock up deaths are the Human rights violation cases are matters of concern. Judiciary has interpreted and evolved new concepts of Criminal Justice System. A fair criminal trail protects accuser’s right along with social security, human dignity and personal liberty. It is essays, necessary to publicity made through vernacular languages, print and electronic media, NGO’s political parties, Academicians, judiciary, human rights organizations etc. to increase awareness of the essays buy, human rights. Human rights granted form the very essence of civilized life and to be ever attentive to protect freedoms and basic human right. Indian Constitution and other international documents, Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 1948 which says: ‘Everyone is essays, entitled in full equality to term cover a fair and public hearing by any independent and impartial tribunal in the determination of his rights and obligations and persuasive essays, of any criminal charge against him.’ The right to life and personal liberty enshrined in Article 21 of the Constitution is what is your approach, of widest amplitude and several un-enumerated rights fall within Article 21. These rights are: a) Right to go abroad; b) Right to privacy; c) Right against solitary confinement; d) Right against essays 4th grade, Bar Falters; e) Right to free legal aid in term paper cover criminal trail; f) Right to 4th grade speedy trail; g) Right against handcuffing; h) Right against delayed execution; i) Right against custodial execution; j) Right against public hanging; k) Right to health care or Doctor’s assistance; l) Right to Shelter; Other Rights which have been held to emanate from chapter research paper, Article 21 are following: a) Right to know; b) Right to compensation; c) Right to persuasive essays 4th grade Release and Rehabilitation of Bonded Labour; d) Right against cruel and unusual punishment; e) Right of Inmates of protective Homes.

4. Prison Justice System. ‘Prisonization symbolizes a system of punishment and also a sort of institutional placement of under trails and suspects during the period of questions, trial. One cannot think of a society without crime and criminals, thus, the institution of prison is obligatory for every country32.The Prison Statistics of India shows , a total of 1,391 prisons across the persuasive 4th grade, country, as on 31 st December, 2013 have 4, 11,992 prison inmates against authorized capacity of film extended essays, 3, 47,859, which amounts to 118.4% of occupancy rate. The rate of imprisonment in India, as per number of prison inmates, is 32 prisoners per one lakh population during 2013, which is demonstrably one of the persuasive, lowest in the world. Georgia Tech Questions? The prison inmates in India comprise of persuasive, 67.6% under trials, 31.5% convicts and remaining 0.9% as civil prisoners and essays, detainees33. Purpose of Prisons.

Maintenance of law and order lies in the hands of the state and therefore if a person violates the law of the state and commits crime, he is put behind the bars so that he cannot commit another crime. The place where he is put is called ‘prison’ or ‘jail’. Jail is the oldest institution for incarcerating offenders. Essays? It is the portal of the criminal justice system. Essays? It can be described as ‘cesspools of essays, crime’ the ultimate ghetto, ‘dumping grounds’ and festering sores in the criminal justice system34.

The purpose of essays buy, prisons can be broadly categorized as punishment, deterrence, isolation, reformation and reintegration. If a person commits a crime, is put behind the bars. Prison acts as agents of punishment on behalf of the society. The powers of the trial court are very wide and the legislative intent of providing a fair trial and presumption of innocence in persuasive 4th grade favour of the chapter research paper, accused is the essence of the criminal justice system. A magistrate is persuasive essays, competent to direct further investigation in terms of Section 173 (8) Code of Criminal Procedure in the case instituted on a police report.

Similarly, the Magistrate has powers under Section 202 Code of Criminal Procedure to direct police investigation while keeping the second grade, trial pending before him instituted on the basis of a private complaint in terms of persuasive, that Section. Studies Extended Essays? The provisions of essays, Section 210 Code of Criminal Procedure use the expression ‘shall’ requiring the Magistrate to stay the proceedings of inquiry and is your to life, trail before him in the event in a similar subject matter, an investigation is found to be in progress. 5. International human rights norms. The idea of Human Rights is essays 4th grade, universal concept for essays all mankind and it has evolved gradually through the world. It is 4th grade, based on natural rights. The Magna Carta(1215), Petition of essays buy, Rights (1628), Bill of Rights(1689), Charter of New Plymouth (1620), State of Virginia declaration of rights (1776), French Declaration of the Rights of Man and 4th grade, of the Citizen(1789), Bill of Rights in America (1791),Babylonain laws, Hittile laws, Dharma of the Vedic period in India and sangam literature etc. have roots for the protection of rights of man. The first democracy use of the expression ‘ human rights’ is to be found in the charter of the United Nations, Which was adopted (after the second world war) at San Francisco on June 26, 1945 and ratified by a majority of its signatories in October that year. UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), Covenant on paper, Civil and Political Rights and Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) are international instruments. India has long recognized the importance of ensuring its own compliance with these international human rights obligations. While international treaties do not automatically become part of domestic law upon ratification35, the Constitution provides, as a Directive Principle of State Policy, that the government ‘shall endeavor to foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in essays 4th grade the dealings of essays buy, organized people with one another,’ and also authorizes the central government to enact legislation implementing its international law obligations without regard to the ordinary division of central and state government powers. The Supreme Court of India has frequently emphasized that constitutional and statutory provisions should be interpreted in light of India’s international law obligations 36 and has looked for guidance when interpreting the Constitution’s fundamental rights provisions to persuasive essays the UDHR, which was adopted while the Constitution was being drafted.

India also is bound by customary international law norms, to the extent it has not persistently objected to those norms, and is absolutely bound by extended essays, norms that have attained the essays, status of jus cogens. In 1993, India established the National Human Rights Commission, an independent government commission whose mandate is to protect and essays, promote international human rights norms. The NHRC is persuasive essays 4th grade, empowered to receive and investigate individual complaints of human rights violations, initiate such investigations on its own, monitor and make non-binding recommendations to the government on domestic implementation of international human rights norms, and promote public awareness of human rights standards. To conduct these activities, the NHRC has the powers of a civil court, including the ability to essay compel appearance of witnesses, examine witnesses under oath, compel discovery and persuasive essays 4th grade, production of second grade, documents, and order production of records from courts and government agencies. If the NHRC concludes that violations occurred, it may recommend compensation to the victim or prosecution of those responsible. The government must report any actions taken within one month, and the NHRC publishes these responses along with the report of its own investigation and conclusions. The NHRC only may investigate alleged violations within the essays, previous year and may not investigate allegations against the armed forces. India and International Conventions on Human Rights. Rights UDHR Indian Constitution. Right to Life, liberty and security of chapter research, person Article 3 Article 21. Probation of slavery, slavery trade etc Article 4 Article 23.

Equality before law and non-discriminate Article 7 Article 14 and persuasive 4th grade, 15(1) Right to effective remedy Article 8 Article 32. Right against arbitrary arrest, detention etc Article 9 Article 22. Right against term, ex-post factor laws Article 11 (2) Article 20(1) Right to freedom of movement Article 13(1) Article 10(1) (d) Right to own property and not to be deprived of property (But it was omitted by the constitute (42 Amendment Act, 1978) Article 17 Article 19(1) (f) Right to freedom of thought, conscience and Religion Article 18 Article 25(1) Right to freedom of opinion and expression Article 19 Article 19(1) (a) Right to freedom of peaceful assembly and persuasive essays, association Article 20 (1) Article 19 (1) (b) Right to equal access to public service Article 16 (1) Article 21 (2) Right to social security Article 22 Article 29 (1)

Right to form and to join trade unions Article 19 (1) (c) Article 23 (4) 6. Balancing Rights of the accused and second essays, the victim. The protection of human rights through the criminal justice delivery system is an indispensable feature of any system governed by the rule of persuasive 4th grade, law. the protection of human rights have been acknowledged to varying extents across time, but since the Second World War, the universality of georgia essay questions, human rights has been recognized by the United Nations as inherent in the very nature of human beings ‘ a reflection of their common humanity. The Constitution of India, in its Part III, guarantees a set of Fundamental Rights to citizens. A few of these rights are also available to the accused, a suspect as well as an under trial. These rights are guaranteed under Articles 14, 19, 20, 21 and 22. Prisoners are also entitled to the benefits of persuasive 4th grade, Articles 32 and 226 of the Constitution. In addition to essay questions the fundamental rights, the accused, suspects and under trail prisoners enjoy certain other legal rights provided under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC); the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973(Cr.P.C); and the Indian Evidence Act, 1872 (IEA). The Supreme Court of India and 4th grade, High Courts have not only played a vital role in georgia essay questions attaching constitutional significance to these rights but, through humane judicial interpretation and 4th grade, acumen, also expanded their contents.

An attempt is made to highlight briefly a few prominent rights of the accused, a suspect, an under trial and to offer some suggestions to ensure their promotion and protection. Rights of the Accused37. 1. Right to Life. 2. Right to paper cover Speedy Trial. 3. Right to Counsel. 4. Persuasive? Right to Free Legal Aid.

5. Right to essays buy Fair Trial. 6. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade? Right against Double Jeopardy. 7. Right against Self-incrimination. 8. Right against Third-Degree Methods. 9. Right to Fair Treatment. In India the fundamental rights guaranteed under our constitution is the repository of those inalienable human rights, which inhere in a person. The words ‘life’ and ‘liberty’ appearing in Article 21 has been construed by the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India in an open all encompassing way that it has now matured to an extent not seen in their mind’s eye by the fathers of the Constitution or by paper cover, the Judges who gave it an initial lustre. Persuasive? In Maneka Gandhi’s case 38, the Hon’ble Supreme Court, held that the Article is essays, a recognition and declaration of rights, which inhere in every individual.

It was a major departure from the narrow interpretation of Article in A.K.Gopalan’s Case39.This remarkable expansion of persuasive, Article 21 paved way for the resurrection of term, many non-justifiable Directive Principles as enforceable fundamental rights. The word ‘deprived’ used in Article was supposed to impose upon essays 4th grade, the State the negative duty not to term paper cover interfere with the life or liberty of an individual without the sanction of law. With the magic wand of judicial activism, Judges imposed a positive obligation upon the State to initiate steps for ensuring to the individual a better enjoyment of his life and dignity. This positive aspect of the article essentially is a suitable tool for the higher judiciary to protect victim’s rights. The past three decades saw many judgments by the higher judiciary invoking Article 21 to protect the right of the accused in criminal proceedings. Prisoners’ right of speedy disposal 40, handcuffing of prisoners 41, delay in execution of death sentence 42, right to open fair trial 43, are few of the countless number of instances when the Apex court came to the aid of the accused to guard their rights. Victims’ rights did receive the attention of our apex court especially in the recent times though instances are not many.

The rights of the victims of crime and abuse of power are still not effectively acknowledged. The fundamental rights guaranteed in essays the Constitution of India and other statutory rights, victims can fall back on what is your to life, the International Conventions to which our country is a party, to establish their rights. The Supreme Court in several cases accepted International Conventions as enforceable when these Conventions elucidate and bring into effect the fundamental rights under the Constitution. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade? They have also been read as part of domestic law, as long as there is no inconsistency between the Convention and what approach essay, domestic law44. It is now an accepted rule of judicial construction that regard must be had to persuasive international conventions and norms for construing domestic law when there is no inconsistency between them and there is a void in the domestic law. Any International Convention not inconsistent with the fundamental rights and in harmony with its spirit must be read into these provisions to enlarge the meaning and content thereof, to 4 of research paper promote the object of the persuasive essays 4th grade, constitutional guarantees. Studies Essays? This is implicit from Article 51(c) and the enabling power of the parliament to enact laws for implementing the essays 4th grade, International Conventions and norms by virtue of Art.253 read with Entry 14 of the Union List in Seventh Schedule of the Constitution45. All Criminal Justice Systems in democratic World have three separately organized parts; The Police as law enforcement agency; The Courts; which, serve to establish the guilt or innocence of the apprehended person and, if his guilt is established, pass sentence upon him as provided by the sanctity of the code violated; and The prison and correctional system. Each one of the components of the Criminal Justice System shares certain common goals.

They collectively exist to protect society, maintain law and order and protect crime. But they also individually contribute to these goals in their own special way. The Indian Criminal Justice System has incorporated human rights friendly provisions of the international instruments, particularly the judiciary have responded to the new situation in a positive manner and sincerely hoped that in the long run we will have international standards enforced in the criminal justice administration in India. Malimath Committee recommendations are implemented immediately. 1.State of Punjab v.Ajaib Singh, AIR 1953,SC 10. 2.Avinash v.State of what is your, Maharastra (1983) Cr.L.J 1833 (para 9) Bombay. 3.Anand Swarup Gupta, Police Reform in Retrospect, XXIV Indian Journal of persuasive, Public Administration (Silver Jubilee Issue, 1978) p.59. 5.H.N.Rishbud and Indersingh v.State of Delhi [(1955) 1 SCR 115]

6.Manohar Lal Sharma v. Principal Secretary [2013 STPL (Web) 1017 (SC)] para. 29. 7.(1997) 1 SCC 416: 1997 SCC (Cri) 92: AIR 1997 SC 610. 8.K.P.Saksena, Human Rights and the Constitution- Vision and the Reality, 2003, p.246. 9.Pathumma v. State of Kerala, A.I.R. 1978 S.C. Studies? 771. 11.Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India, A.I.R. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade? 1978 S.C. 597;

12.Kartar Singh v. Chapter 4 Of? State of Punjab, (1994) 2 S.C.R. Persuasive 4th Grade? 375, 1994 Indlaw SC 525, para. 216. 13.Kharak Singh v. State of Uttar Pradesh, A.I.R. Essays Buy? 1963 S.C. 898. 14.Francis Coralie Mullin v. Union Territory of Delhi, A.I.R. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade? 1981 S.C.

746. 15.State of Punjab v. Baldev Singh, A.I.R. 1999 S.C. 2378. 16.Antulay v. R.S. Naik, A.I.R. 1992 S.C. 1701.

17.Arun Ray, National Human Rights Commission of India: Formation, Functioning and Future properties, Vol.1, 2004, p.50-52. 18.T. Anantha Chari, Democracy and Social Defence, SEMINAR, Oct. 1977, at 26, 29 (quoting Report of the tech essay, Delhi Police Commission, 1966-68). 20.Verma, supra note 25. 25.

R.K. Raghavan, The Indian Police: Problems and Prospects,Sept. 2003, at 119, 129. 26. R.K.Raghavan, supranote 39, at 131 n.14; seeINDIA CONST. art. 311.

27.MHA, ANNUAL REPORT 2004-05, supranote 37, at 105. 28. Indian Constitution., 7th sched., List I (Union List), ” 2A; see also id.art. 355. 31.State of Bihar v. J.A.C. Saldhana, 1980 SCC (Cri) 272, 286. 32.Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 65. 34.

Dr.Shivani Gosami , Prison reforms in essays 4th grade India, Nyaya Deep , Vol.XIII, Issue 2 3 , April July, 2012, National Legal Service Authority, New Delhi, p. 66. 35.State of research paper, Madras v. G.G. Menon, A.I.R. 1954 S.C. 517. 37. Shivraj B.Nakade. Persuasive Essays? Rights of the Accused ‘Some Reflections on the Legislative Scheme in India.In, Criminal Justice System (A Human Rights perspective of the Criminal Justice Process in India) Editd. Dr.K.I.Vibhute. Eastern Book Company, Lucknow, 2004.pp.129. 38.

AIR 1978 SC 597. 39. AIR 1950 SCR 88. 40. Georgia? Raghbir Singh v. State of Bihar 1987 SC 149; Ramdas v.State of Bihar 1987 SC 1333; A.R.Antulay v. 4th Grade? R.S.Nayak 1992 SC 1701. 41. Aeltemesh v. Union of India, 1988 SC.1765. 42. Approach To Life? Triveniben v.State of Gujarat 1989 SC 1335.

43. Kehar Singh v. State 1988 SC.1883. 44. R.D.Upadhaya v. Persuasive Essays 4th Grade? State of A.P. 4 Of Example? AIR 2006 Supreme Court 1946=2006 AIR SCW 2274. 45. Vishaka v. Persuasive? state of Rajasthan [(1997)] 6 SCC 241. 46. 1998 CRLJ 4561. 47.

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